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What is NAD+ (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)?
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide stands for NAD+. It is one of the major cofactors of the cell. It is synthesized from the essential amino acid nicotinic acid and is ubiquitous in all forms of living organisms. NAD plays essential roles in a wide variety of biochemical processes in the cell, including the glycolytic and oxidative phosphorylation systems and the cell cycle, gene transcription, and chromatin remodeling.
Do NAD+ Supplements work?
In particular, NAD is a crucial source of energy via electron transfer. NAD is an essential player in the process of aerobic respiration. During cellular respiration, the oxidation of NAD to NADH couples the oxidation of glucose to the reduction of oxygen, generating ATP.
NAD also acts as a co-substrate for a class of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases. It is called sirtuins, have been intensively studied due to their involvement in gene transcription, DNA repair, and metabolism. Sirtuins have the function of cellular energy sensors to monitor cellular energy levels. Notably, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), is the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of NAD. It implicates energy metabolism.
NAMPT responds to cellular energy levels in both standard and cancer cells. Thus, cellular energy levels are essential regulators of the biosynthesis of NAD and its downstream sirtuin signaling. In healthy individuals, the serum levels of NAD are approximately 200–300 μM, while in cancer patients, the serum levels of NAD are typically in the range of 10–20 μM. This decrease in NAD is a consequence of increased energy expenditure and increased usage of NAD by glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
NAD+ Supplement Review
Indeed, cancer cells predominantly use glucose for glycolysis and other molecules such as fatty acids. It contrasts to normal cells, which primarily use glucose to generate NAD for respiration. Furthermore, it leads to the hypothesis that NAD is a significant energy source for cancer cells, which have increased energy requirements.
In support of this hypothesis, cancer cell lines, when compared to regular cell lines, are more sensitive to chemical inhibitors of the biosynthesis of NAD, including FK866. It suggests that NAMPT inhibition has increased selectivity for cancer cells, which may be due to the cancer cells’ increased dependency on the biosynthesis of NAD for energy production.
NAD-Boosting Supplements – Cancer Treatments
Additionally, the treatment of cancer patients with NAMPT inhibitors has shown promise. In addition to increased energy requirements and increased NAD usage by cancer cells, the upregulation of NAMPT expression and activity implicates cancer cells’ resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. High NAMPT expression and action link with resistance to the chemotherapy drugs cisplatin and epirubicin. In addition, NAMPT inhibitors show to enhance the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic drugs paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil in breast cancer cells.
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Similar findings are in head and neck cancer and pancreatic cancer. Additionally, several studies show that inhibitors of NAMPT or NAMPT overexpression increase the susceptibility to apoptosis in cancer cells. An example of NAMPT inhibition by FK866 combined with gemcitabine increased the anti-cancer effects of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells.
Also, NAMPT inhibition combined with gemcitabine increased the apoptosis of leukemia cells. These findings indicate that the biosynthesis of NAD is essential for the survival of cancer cells. Inhibition of NAMPT leads to NAD depletion and increased sensitivity of the cancer cells to apoptosis.
In contrast, these studies have not demonstrated an increased response to NAMPT inhibitors in normal cells. However, NAMPT inhibition with FK866 or siRNA increases the sensitivity of multiple typical cell types.
Including mammary epithelial cells, normal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes to genotoxic stress. It is likely due to decreased cellular NAD levels in these normal cells, leading to NAD-dependent sirtuin activation, DNA repair, and stress response.
NAD Supplement Side Effects
Whilst most of the findings here are for information only. We like to bring you as much about the research peptide Nad as is possible. Trials with NAD are few, but the most common problems from NAD+ are:
- Brain fog
How can I Increase my NAD+ naturally?
While this post looks at the research peptide NAD+, you can actually increase NAD+ levels naturally. Some tips include increasing exercise, limiting your time in the sun, and diet change. Some foods that can naturally improve NAD levels are dairy milk, fish, and mushrooms.
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