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Diabetes Research: Groundbreaking

Diabetes ResearchDiabetes Research is Groundbreaking!

American Diabetes Association Congress: Individualization at All Levels of Therapy

Patients should set glycemic targets based on individual characteristics and priorities as diabetes progresses.

New data and studies commentators say are “groundbreaking.”

The American Diabetes Association 2021 (ADA) Virtual Convention offered much. The target group were not only diabetologists but also care of people with type 2 diabetes.

Personalized therapy goals for patients with type 1 diabetes

To date, national and international guidelines on type 1 diabetes are only based on evidence derived from type 2 studies. “Of course, we have guidelines for the management of people with type 1 diabetes, but this is mostly mixed up with broader recommendations that focus on type 2 diabetes,” stated Anne L. Peters, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles.

European and American diabetes societies have now joined forces to finally develop their “own” evidence-based recommendations for type 1 diabetes. The final version was presented at the EASD Congress at the end of September (see article below). There was already a foretaste at the ADA Congress.

What is the latest research on diabetes?

Individualization is the keyword at all levels. Diabetes starts with the glycemic target values. It should be set for each patient according to individual characteristics and priorities. But it can change as the disease progresses. HbA1c remains a vital parameter; and is complemented by other metrics such as pre-and postprandial blood glucose, time in range and glycemic variability. For most patients, an HbA1c target below 7% is adequate. “But any reduction in HbA1c is beneficial, even if the target cannot be reached,” emphasized Peters.

Insulin therapy should mimic the physiological situation as best as possible and allow those affected a high degree of flexibility in everyday life, including concerning nutrition and physical activity, explained Sue Kirkman, University of Chicago. The consensus report recommends insulin pumps or multiple daily injections, preferably with insulin analogues. Continuous glucose monitoring and closed-loop systems are rated even better, but they are unavailable everywhere and cause significantly higher costs.

With a separate chapter, the report acknowledges the high psychosocial and mental stress that type 1 diabetes poses to those affected, reported Frank J. Snoek, University of Amsterdam. “Emotional health is an important outcome of diabetes therapy, and it requires a personal approach,” says the medical psychologist.

To support people with type 1 diabetes, physicians should specifically develop their professional skills to talk about problems with self-management and coping with emotional and social burdens.

Diabetic Nephropathy: KDIGO gives detailed recommendations

EASD and ADA address diabetic nephropathy as part of their recommendations for managing type 2 diabetes.

KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) has devoted its 120-page guideline to it — Almost anyway, because according to the focus of the international organization, the topic is not “kidney damage in diabetes” but “diabetes management in chronic kidney disease”. 

Diabetes ResearchThe KDIGO makes no distinction between type 1 and types 2 diabetes.

The guidelines agree on many core aspects, emphasized John B. Buse, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The standard is that people with diabetic kidney damage should receive a RAS inhibitor, especially if they also have hypertension, as is often the case. The dose should be up to the maximum, and the blood pressure should be lowered to at least below 140/90 mmHg — if the patient can tolerate it, it can be lower. According to KDIGO, an increase in creatinine under RAS inhibitor therapy can be tolerated if it does not exceed 30% in 4 weeks and there is no volume depletion.

Is There Diabetes Research?

Irrespective of the initial and current HbA1c value, antihyperglycemic pharmacotherapy now includes an SGLT2 inhibitor. It is an indispensable partner in addition to metformin as long as the eGFR is at least 30 ml/min. 

According to the unanimous opinion of the guideline authors, the best evidence of nephroprotection exists for gliflozine. Buse pointed out that the eGFR can drop at the beginning of therapy.

However, this is no reason to discontinue the SGLT2 inhibitor, as kidney performance stabilizes over the long term. If the patient does not tolerate the SGLT2 inhibitor or if there are contraindications, a GLP1 receptor agonist should preferably be prescribed for further blood sugar reduction. In the case of SGLT2 inhibitors such as GLP1-RA, active substances should be chosen whose cardio-renal benefit has been demonstrated in high-quality endpoint studies.

Top Antidiabetics in a head-to-head Comparison

Metformin was in place as first-line therapy, but it was unclear which antidiabetic would be best for second-line. It looked like when GRADE (Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes) was conceived in 2009 and launched in 2013. The industry-independent head-to-head study could serve as a model for a realistic study design. Unfortunately, the reality was not the case.

Is Triple Therapy the Optimum for Type 2 Diabetes?

According to Ralph A. DeFronzo, the University of Texas at San Antonio, there is a clear answer to the best therapy for type 2 diabetes.

-The triple combination of SGLT2 inhibitor, GLP-1 receptor antagonist (GLP1 RA) and pioglitazone

-No single antidiabetic has been able to combat all of the metabolic disorders that underlie type 2 diabetes

-The three active substances/active substance classes mentioned intervene in practically all central mechanisms of diabetes pathogenesis, explained De Fronzo.

How Likely is a Cure for Diabetes?

SGLT2 inhibitors slow down the increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney, improve beta cell function and increase glucose uptake in the muscles. 

GLP1-RAs complement this by increasing insulin secretion, slowing down glucagon secretion and exerting beneficial effects on liver and neurotransmitter function — key words: appetite and satiety. 

Thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone are the only actual insulin sensitizers. Still, they have fallen into disrepute because of weight gain, especially since the positive effects on beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and HbA1c are more significant the more the patient gains weight. The triple combination with SGLT2 inhibitor and GLP1-RA can counterbalance the weight effect of pioglitazone. It does this without counteracting metabolic effects.

All three combination candidates reduce not only hyperglycemia-related microvascular complications but also provide cardiovascular protection, DeFronzo noted. 

The evidence for SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP1-RA is more solid than for pioglitazone, for which there are no studies with cardiovascular complications as the primary endpoint.

SGLT2 inhibitors reduce the risk- presumably primarily via haemodynamic effects — in addition to the known weight and blood pressure effects—the reduction in sympathetic tone and the increased availability of ketones as an energy source in the myocardium. 

In addition to reducing weight, blood pressure and lipids, GLP1-RA also has an anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effect. 

GLP-1 receptors are also found in the human heart, making direct myocardial effects likely, although what they look like is not entirely clear. Pioglitazone combines beneficial effects on inflammation, lipotoxicity, blood pressure and lipid profile.

Twincretin-based against diabetes and obesity

Stimulating two incretin receptors is likely to have a more substantial effect than a single agonist. It is the idea behind developing the GIP/GLP-1 receptor agonist Tirzepatide. 

In the phase 3 program SURPASS has demonstrated potent antidiabetic and weight-loss effects without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.

The two incretins GLP-1 and GIP overlap and complement each other in their effects on the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and CNS, explained Daniel Drucker, University of Toronto. 

Tirzepatide can bind to the GLP1 and GIP receptors, providing a dual effect with a single molecule. One subcutaneous injection is enough for a week. The SURPASS program includes ten studies, 4 of which were presented at the ADA Congress. All showed an hba1c solid reduction of 2–2.5% and a drastic weight loss of about 12 kg within 40–52 weeks, as well as the usual incretin-associated gastrointestinal side effects with no significant surprises

The 40-week open-label study SURPASS-2, in which tirzepatide was compared with semaglutide, which has already been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and also obesity in the USA. It has aroused the most significant interest. The comparison was not entirely fair, as semaglutide is dosed higher in obesity therapy than in diabetes treatment and in SURPASS-2 (2.4 mg/week instead of 1 mg/week). At the start of the study, however, only the 1 mg dosage was approved in the USA, explained study leader Juan Pablo Frías, National Research Institute, Los Angeles. One thousand eight hundred seventy-nine people who were stable on at least 1,500 mg/day of metformin as background therapy were randomized.

Is there a true cure for diabetes?

In terms of HbA1c, the dual agonist performed significantly better than the GLP1-RA in all three doses tested (5, 10 and 15 mg/week) (minus 2.09%–2.46% vs. 1.86%, p<0.001 ). Tirzepatide is superior in the anti-obesity effect, with weight losses of up to 12.4 kg in the 15 mg/week arm (6.2 kg with Semaglutide, p<0.001). 

However, more patients discontinued in the two study arms with higher doses of tirzepatide than with semaglutide (12% and 13.2% vs 8.7%), primarily because of adverse effects.

For Drucker, these study results open “the next chapter in incretin-based therapies that will bring meaningful improvements in the health and quality of life of people with diabetes.” He was convinced that tolerability in everyday clinical practice would be better if doctors and patients could manage the dose flexibly.

RATIONALE FOR ACTIVE INGREDIENTS LIKE TIRZEPATIDE

Diabetes mellitus is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, the therapy aims to lower the blood sugar level and reduce the patient’s body weight. Some active ingredients, thus, attack the so-called incretins. These postprandially released molecules regulate, among other things, how much glucagon and insulin release. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are two such molecules.

GLP-1 inhibits glucagon release, promotes insulin release, delays gastric emptying, and inhibits hunger and thirst. GIP also stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. It regulates glucagon release both in a hyperglycaemic phase and in a normal- or hypoglycaemic state.

The receptor of the GLP-1 molecule has, therefore long been the target structure of the GLP-1 receptor agonists. Combination agents of GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonists are now being explored. One such is tirzepatide.

Disclaimer “To keep content unique, this article contains affiliate links connected to the topic to credit our writers.”

 

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Lung Cancer Summary

lung cancer summary
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Lung Cancer Summary – Lung cancer is a malignant disease that is the most common cause of death from a neoplastic entity in men. Its frequency amounts to 25/100,000 people per year. The male: female ratio is 3:1 (except for adenocarcinoma, where this ratio is 6:1 in favor of females). The disease occurs between the ages of 55 and 60, but there are cases diagnosed before age 40.

What are Lung Cancer Causes?

As with all malignant diseases, the specific cause of malignant degeneration of cells is unknown. Many carcinogenic substances have a predisposing effect. In 85% of cases, inhalation of cigarette smoke is the cause of the development of bronchial carcinoma (which is one of the histological types of carcinoma). The risk increases as the duration and quantity of cigarettes smoked increase. Potentiation of risk is when smoking is combined with exposure to occupational carcinogens (e.g. asbestos). Even passive smoking can increase the risk of malignancy.

Several groups of carcinogenic chemicals are known:

-Chromium-6-compounds – especially zinc, strontium and calcium chromate
-Arsenic compounds – arsenic acid and its salts, arsenic trioxide, etc.
-Haloether
-Dichlorodiethylene sulfide
-Ionizing radiations – radon, uranium
-Asbestos – chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite,
-Nickel
-Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – benzopyrene, indenopyrene

Other risk factors are genetic predisposition and the presence of pulmonary scars.

What are the Disease Changes?

According to localization, lung cancer is split into:

-Central (perihilar) carcinoma – usually small cell or squamous cell
-Peripheral carcinoma – a particular form is a Pancoast-Tobias tumor – with peak localization
-Diffuse lung carcinoma

According to the histological structure, lung cancer divides into two main types:

Small cell carcinoma (SCLC – small cell lung cancer) – has mainly a central localization and is distinguished by the most unfavorable prognosis. In 80% of cases, the tumour has already metastasized when the diagnosis is made. Often, the cells look like oat cells under a microscope (oat cell carcinoma) and may secrete hormones.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC – non-small cell lung cancer). It, in turn, can be several options:

-Squamous cell carcinoma – mainly with central localization (most common type)
-Adenocarcinoma – often with peripheral localization and is the most common form of carcinoma in non-smokers
-Broncho-alveolar carcinoma – carcinoma of alveolar cells, which is also an adenocarcinoma
-Large cell lung carcinoma

The presence of a predisposition and the action of carcinogens leads to the appearance of the tumor. The following processes occur – metaplasia of the bronchial cylindrical epithelium into squamous, followed by epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma development. Through these “steps”, squamous cell bronchial carcinoma development passes. It is also the most common association to the greatest extent with smoking.

According to the degree of differentiation, the carcinoma divides into G1 (good), G2 (medium), G3 (poorly differentiated) and G4 (undifferentiated). It metastasizes to the regional lymph nodes. Hematogenous distant metastases are often already present at diagnosis in small cell carcinoma. Common localizations are the liver, skeleton, adrenal glands, and brain.

What are the Symptoms of Lung Cancer?

In the early stage, there are virtually no complaints. Some symptoms are Cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Hemoptysis may also be present, but it is more often a late manifestation of the disease. The appearance of asthma or chronic bronchitis at a late age and with a short history, treatment-resistant colds, and recurrent pneumonia requires increased attention. Late manifestations of the disease are a hoarse voice (paresis of the recurrent nerve) and a pleural effusion, especially of a hemorrhagic nature.

In the rare Pancoast tumor, which affects the apices of the lungs and involves the chest wall, the cervical part of the sympathetic and nerve roots are damaged. Ultimately this leads to bone destruction of the first rib and the first thoracic vertebra, arm pain (neuralgic pain from brachial plexus involvement), the Clode-Bernar-Horner triad – unilateral miosis, eyelid ptosis, and enophthalmos.

Broncho-alveolar carcinoma is often confused with chronic pneumonia. It presents a dry, irritating cough with mucus-watery expectoration and has a poor prognosis. It is inoperable due to its diffuse spread.

Small cell carcinoma can arise from cells of the APUD (Amine Precursor Uptake Decarboxylase) system. They have the property of secreting biologically active substances and hormones. Therefore, in small cell carcinoma, the so-called paraneoplastic syndromes and endocrinopathies:

Cushing’s syndrome – due to ectopic production of adrenocorticotropic hormone:

-Syndrome of inadequate secretion and antidiuretic hormone
-Tumor hypercalcemia due to the production of parathormone-like peptides
-Lamber-Eaton syndrome – weakness in the proximal musculature of the limbs, which leads, for example, to difficulty climbing stairs;
-Polymyositis and dermatomyositis
-Paraneoplastic tendency to thrombosis

On the x-ray examination, the picture of the appearance of the tumor can be the most diverse according to localization, shape, and stages.

The radiograph can give data on:

-obstructive emphysema
-atelectasis, abscessation
-bronchiectasis
-a rounded focus with decay
-ring-shaped shadow
-necrotic round focus with a breakthrough to the pleural cavity
pleural effusion, etc.

Laboratory data usually show no abnormalities. Tumor markers can be tested, but they are not good at screening tests, only for therapeutic follow-up.

How is Lung Cancer Diagnosis Made?

The diagnosis is complex. Anamnestic data are often uncharacteristic. A guiding method for detecting the localization of the process is the chest X-ray. There is no form of lung shadowing that CAN NOT hide lung carcinoma. Therefore, computed axial tomography (CAT scanner) is suggested.

The diagnosis is confirmed by performing bronchoscopy and taking material for histological examination.
A diagnostic thoracotomy is performed if it is impossible to take material from tumor tissue during a bronchoscopic examination.

Diagnostic studies must be carried out to establish possible distant metastases – CT scan of the brain, echography or CT scan of abdominal organs, and bone scintigraphy.

The histological determination of the tumor and the determination of the spread of the process by imaging studies are the determining factors for the upcoming therapeutic interventions.

What Can go Wrong?

The symptoms and the chest x-ray resemble several lung diseases: pneumonia, acute and chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, COPD, bronchial asthma, upper respiratory tract infections, lung metastases from another primary focus, etc.
Treatment-resistant colds in people over 40 require all necessary diagnostic procedures to rule out lung carcinoma. Any cough that persists for more than four weeks despite treatment should be clarified.

What is the Main Lung Cancer Treatment?

Treatment includes surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and palliative care. Curative surgical resection of the tumor happens in localized non-small cell carcinoma cases. Resection is performed, accompanied by clearing of the lymphatic basins.

Since small cell carcinoma is usually already advanced at its diagnosis, surgical treatment with subsequent chemotherapy, aiming at cure, is applied only at an early stage. In some instances, combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be carried out preoperatively.

Small cell carcinoma is treated with radiation therapy using a megavolt technique with a dose that destroys the tumor – 50-60 Gy. In this case, the skull is also irradiated prophylactically. Polychemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy in small cell carcinoma in the case of the limited disease leads to a complete cure in 5-10% of cases.

Where there is no cure due to the stage of the disease, there is a need for palliative treatment.

It includes radiation, chemotherapy, administration of bisphosphonates in the presence of bone metastases, and analgesic preparations for cancer pain.

Lung Cancer Prevention – How to Protect Ourselves?

It is essential to avoid carcinogenic substances and smoking. Statistics show that there would be 1/3 less cancer globally if all smokers stopped smoking.

What are the Recommendations after the Diagnosis?

Prognosis depends entirely on early diagnosis. Unfortunately, nearly 2/3 of patients at diagnosis are unsuitable for surgery. The behavior and prognostic factors depend on the following:
-the histological type
-the disease stage
-the patient’s general condition
-immunological status.

Early diagnosis of first-stage squamous cell carcinoma, for example, without lymph node involvement, predicts survival after five years in about 60% of cases. As the disease progresses (2nd – 3rd stage), this percentage sharply decreases. In the remaining histological types, the prognosis for cure is unfavorable, especially in small-cell carcinoma.

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What is MOTS-c Supplement?

MOTS-c is a relatively new research peptide of 16 amino acids made from the mitochondrial gene. From intense studies, mitochondria play a big part in controlling energy production. MOTS -c maintains regular metabolic functions in the body, changing glucose into usable energy. The first studies indicate MOTS -c improves control over blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Studies confirm skeletal muscle is the primary target tissue of MOTS-c. The process is because lean muscle intensifies insulin sensitivity and boosts glucose in muscle cells from actioning the AMPK route while not increasing insulin.

MOTS-c Diabetes

Generally, experts describe MOTS-c as an exercise mimic because it has the same effect on the body as exercise. It increases glucose usage without promoting insulin.

In 1999 experts found AMPK or AMP‐activated protein kinase was the primary key for metabolism and regulation of glucose and fat metabolism. Since then, it has been the main aim of therapy interference from metabolic problems like type 2 diabetes.

Research MOTS-c Peptide Review

The research peptide MOTS-c derives from mitochondrial-derived protein and controls ATP. It boosts insulin sensitivity by lowering glucose broken down by adipose cells. Numerous studies show that MOTS-c can reduce fatty liver disease, making it a possible type 2 diabetes treatment. It does this by encouraging a positive shift in insulin sensitivity, making diet and exercise guide muscles to regain regular function. These processes lower insulin levels and leptin resistance.

Weight Loss with MOTS-c Before and After

Further research shows that MOTS-c is effective in weight loss. It does this by AMP working on cellular energy, with cells actioning AMP when energy levels are low. The AMPK begins in the body after calorie restriction and exercise. In research, the substances that ignite AMPK to work also improve general well-being, reverse diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and mitochondrial diseases, and increase life expectancy.

The body needs a metabolism that works adequately with regular insulin and glucose regulation, proper energy use, and proper mitochondria function. Experts find that the artificial peptide MOTS-c can boost metabolic homeostasis and lower obesity and insulin resistance. Mitochondria also play a crucial role in determining metabolic flexibility.

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Osteoporosis is another factor of aging. The disease weakens bones so much that they can easily fracture and break. Hips, back bones and wrists are most common to fail and break. Osteoporosis is a disease that creeps up and is often not noticed until a bone breaks. Yet this result will mean bones have been losing strength for years. Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease, and MOTS-c can act on cells to promote bone formation and improve stability.

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Peptides in Cosmetics

Peptides in Cosmetics
PEPTIDES IN COSMETICS

Peptides in Cosmetics – In the last year, the peptide serum has become one of the most sought-after beauty products. Everyone has heard and read something about peptides and knows that they are an essential part of anti-aging care. But did you know that the peptides used in cosmetics are in abundance, and each of them has a radically different effect? They serve as many functions in cosmetics as there are various skin problems.

In short, one serum may contain anti-pigmentation peptides, another – peptides for a lifting effect, and a third – for hydration. Therefore, you must first know what result you want to achieve, and then guide the selection of the most suitable peptides for the purpose. In the article we describe what the different types are and what to expect from them.

WHAT ARE PEPTIDES?

Peptides in cosmetics have a 20-30 year history. They are formed from short or long amino acids linked together. When joined in a group of two-three-four to ten amino acids, they form a peptide of a certain type. Namely, the connection of two amino acids is called a dipeptide, three amino acids connected is called a tripeptide, four is a tetrapeptide, and so on. And when the peptides bond with each other, they turn into proteins – a basic building block of the skin known as keratin.

HOW DO PEPTIDES WORK?

Peptides play the role of “information agents” that carry information from one cell to another. What makes them so unique is that they signal cells to produce an element that has stopped or slowed down. For example, when collagen is broken down, natural peptides in the body signal cells in the skin to generate more collagen. And synthetic peptides developed for the cosmetics industry can mimic those naturally found in the skin. They signal to the skin that collagen is breaking down and new collagen production begins.

When peptides are missing in the skin, changes in its structure and appearance occur. Depending on their physiological effect, their roles can be:

  • Stimulants – improve skin regeneration
  • Neurotransmitters – increase the sensitivity threshold of the skin
  • Stabilizers – increase the antioxidant activity of the skin
  • Immunomodulators – increase the immune defense of the skin
  • Regulators of melanogenesis – to correct pigment spots
  • Peptides affecting microcirculation with an anti-edematous effect

PEPTIDES AND THEIR ROLE IN COSMETICS

Current research shows that all peptides have skin-restoring abilities if their formula is protected from breaking down after exposure to light and air, for example. Ironically, peptides can be hydrophilic, that is, unstable in water-based formulas. In addition, they can easily be broken down by the numerous enzymes in the skin and no longer have any benefits for it.

Knowledge of these inherent peptide weaknesses has led many companies to produce synthetic peptides in stabilized formulations. Only stable peptides can fully survive on the skin and smoothly reach their target, deep in the skin layers.

Here are the most common peptides in cosmetics and their names:

Carnosine – a dipeptide that is part of the body’s natural antioxidant system. It is responsible for neutralizing the molecule AGEs / Advanced Glycation End Products. These are responsible for the process of advanced glycation – an irreversible process that changes the structure of collagen and leads to its hardening.

Copper peptide /GHK-Cu, glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine is a copper peptide that accelerates the wound healing process. It has an anti-inflammatory effect by stimulating the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. It also plays the role of a powerful antioxidant.

Crystalide – a peptide that works in two directions. It balances and normalizes the cell renewal process, smoothing the skin surface. Plus, it stimulates the synthesis of a protein called α-crystallin, which is extremely important for achieving the much-desired “porcelain skin”.

Matrixyl 3000 /palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 or Matrikyne is extensively studied for its ability to stimulate new production of type I and II collagen and fibronectin. It is important for skin density and elasticity. A peptide with a lifting effect, which is produced in the fibroblasts when the skin is damaged and strengthens its matrix. Matrikins are produced not only in case of damage, but also in the process of natural skin renewal.

Argireline /acetyl hexapeptide-8 is a synthetic polypeptide similar to botulinum toxin better known as Botox. But unlike Botox, it is safe to use and has no side effects. It prevents the transmission of a nerve impulse to the muscle and reduces the depth of wrinkles.

ADVICE FROM FACECARE SPECIALISTS
Don’t get carried away with the idea that there is a “best peptide” or combination of peptides. Dozens of remarkable peptides exist and more and more will be discovered and developed.

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KPV Peptide buy now for research use at the amazing price of $50.00. We supply the best quality research KPV peptide online. So, if you are in the science and research industry make sure you check out our online store. We supply pages of top-quality research chemicals for research only. In addition, our research products are safe and made in the USA. Therefore they are clinically tested, additive and TFA-Free and pure. KPV peptide is a strong anti-inflammatory research peptide. Studies show it effectively treats inflammatory bowel disease, reducing inflammation and healing wounds.

What is KVP?

KPV is the C-terminal peptide fragment of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). It has potent anti-inflammatory activity in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, cardiovascular system, immune system, and joints. KPV has also shown promise as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Since KPV is a short-chain peptide, its bioavailability is high and it can be administered in multiple ways, including orally.

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How Does KPV Work?

KPV has the potential to reduce intestinal inflammation and provide faster recovery from some disorders of the intestinal system. KPV inhibits TNF-alpha and reduces the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB (protein complex that controls DNA transcription), thus helping to reduce inflammatory changes in the intestine.

Studies show that KPV exerts its effect only against excessive inflammation and has little effect on non-inflamed tissue: KPV enters colon cells via PepT1, a protein channel that is only expressed in the intestine during states inflammatory.

In addition, KPV also serves as an anti-inflammatory in general. This is because alpha-MSH and several of its analogs reduce inflammation associated with a wide variety of diseases such as dermatitis, vasculitis, fibrosis, and arthritis.

Similarly, KPV promotes wound healing and can reduce the type of chronic inflammation that leads to hypertrophic scar formation, such as keloid scars.

KPV Benefits

  • KPV effectively combats various disorders of the intestinal system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
  • It has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect throughout the body.
  • Accelerates wound healing.
  • Helps prevent wounds from generating hypertrophic or keloid scars.

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Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory and ulcerative disease of the mucosa of the colon. It is most often characterized by bloody diarrhoea. There may be extra intestinal symptoms, particularly arthritis. The long-term risk of colon cancer is higher than that of unaffected people. Diagnosis is by colonoscopy. Treatment consists of 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, biological agents, antibiotics, and sometimes surgery.

KPV Dosage – What Can it Do?

KPV is a research tripeptide and is hugely influential in gut health. In addition, it can treat IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) and colon cancer. There is also positive evidence that KPV can help skin conditions such as psoriasis. Clinical trials on animal models show positive results in
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Tirzepatide Weight Loss Trial

Tirzepatide Weight LossTreatment with the drug tirzepatide results in a significant and sustained weight loss in adults with obesity. This is according to a large study published in the New England journal of medicine.

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Tirzepatide Weight Loss Trial

Obesity is one of the biggest health challenges of our time. The chronic disease impairs the quality of life increasing the risk of other serious conditions such as
-Diabetes
-Cardiovascular disease
-Stroke
-Diabetes
-Mobility problems

In addition, it also increases the risk of several types of cancer.

Surgery that reduces the patient’s stomach, combined with lifestyle changes, is the most effective obesity treatment. But in recent years, several drugs for chronic diseases have also been developed. There are currently four approved anti-obesity drugs in the EU; orlistat, liraglutide, naltrexone/bupropion and semaglutide.

The former works by reducing fat absorption in the intestine and the remaining three by controlling the appetite.

Tirzepatide FDA Approval

In the current study, the researchers examined tirzepatide, a so-called GIP / GLP 1 agonist. It stimulates receptors for glucose-dependent insulin-releasing peptide GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1, GLP 1. One of them affects food intake and energy consumption. And the other amplifies the effect. Tirzepatide was recently approved in the United States as a treatment for type 2 diabetes.

The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study with 2,539 adult participants. They had a body mass index, BMI of 30 or more, or 27 or more and at least one weight-related complication, excluding diabetes. The mean age was 44.9 years, and 67 per cent of the participants were women. The study started in December 2019 and was conducted in nine countries.

For 72 weeks, participants received either tirzepatide (5 mg, 10 mg or 15 mg) or a placebo once a week. The treatment period included a dose increase period of up to 20 weeks. Participants would also eat balanced meals with a deficit of 500 calories per day and engage in physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week.

Tirzepatide Weight Loss Tirzepatide Weight Loss Trial

In total, 86 per cent of the participants completed the treatment. At the study’s end, the weight loss percentage was:
-15 per cent in those who received 5 mg of tirzepatide
-19.5 per cent of those who had received 10 mg
-29 per cent of those who had received 15 mg.
In the placebo group, the average weight loss was 3.1 per cent.

The results also showed improvements in, among other things, waist measurements, blood pressure, fasting insulin levels and lipid levels. 95.3 per cent of participants with prediabetes at the beginning of the study had returned to normal blood sugar levels after 72 weeks. The corresponding figure in the placebo group was 61.9 per cent.

About 10% of participants who had received tirzepatide reported at least one side effect.

This can be compared with 72 per cent in the placebo group. The most common side effects were nausea, diarrhoea and constipation with mild or moderate severity. More side effects occurred when the dose was increased.

Six% of participants reported severe side effects. These were evenly distributed across the drug groups and the placebo group. In total, 21% of these were related to covid-19. Eleven deaths were reported, seven in the drug group and four in the placebo group.

What are Tirzepatide Side Effects?

According to the researchers, tirzepatide shows an “unusually significant degree” of weight loss. They also note that there was an expected effect on the occurrence of side effects, as the study was conducted almost entirely during the corona pandemic.

The researchers point out, among other things, the sample size and that the vast majority completed the treatment as some of the study’s strengths. They make the results relatively generalizable, they say.

One limitation they mention is that the participants in the study may represent a subpopulation with a more significant commitment to losing weight than the general population with obesity.

They also mention that only 5.5% of the participants had a BMI between 27 and 30, which counts as overweight. Therefore, further studies are needed in this patient group.

<<TIRZEPATIDE PEPTIDE FOR SALE HERE FOR RESEARCH ONLY>>

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Tirzepatide for Weight Loss

 Tirzepatide for Weight LossTirzepatide for Weight Loss: Tirzepatide is marketed under the brand name Mounjaro. It is a drug approved in the US for treating type 2 diabetes. However, the studies currently being carried out promising offer results also in the treatment of obesity.

Tirzepatide Weight Loss Study

Studies show some patients able to lose weight lose an average of 20% body weight. It shows the results of the SURMOUNT-1 clinical trial, carried out in the USA and recently published in the scientific journal The New England Journal of Medicine. In more detail, according to the study, treatment with high doses of tirzepatide (about 15 mg weekly) would cause them to lose about 22.5% of their body weight.

“The study that is already in phase III of safety and efficacy for the treatment of obesity, indicates that, effectively, it could reduce an average of up to 20% of body weight in some patients”. States Dr Albert Lecube, Vice President of the Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity (SEEDO) and Head of Endocrinology at the Arnau de Vilanova University Hospital (Lleida).

“It is better to express it as a percentage of weight loss because if you weigh 200 kilos with the drug, you still lose 40 kilos; or if you have 80 kilos, you still lose 10. That is to say, it does not mean that everyone who takes it -speaking in a way every day- will stay in the bones. By doing the treatment well, you will lose between 20-25 kilos, on average. However, there will possibly continue to be people who will lose more and others less”, clarifies the expert.

How Does Tirzepatide Work for Weight Loss?

This drug would have a double action against obesity. As the doctor explains, it acts against satiety signals, reducing appetite. The GLP-1 peptide (like other medications indicated for obesity such as Saxenda or Wegovy already did, the latter approved only in the US) activates another component called GIP that could imply body fat regulation. “This synergy would make it more powerful, and therefore, the body would be able to lose much more weight,” he says.

If this drug is for treating obesity, it will join other medical therapies such as Saxenda. Saxenda is the most effective medication available in Spain, from which some patients with obesity have benefited since 2016. Likewise, Saxenda shares the same active ingredient (liraglutide) for treating type 2 diabetes, but with different doses and indications. Once again, it proves that a drug against type 2 diabetes also has benefits in treating obesity. In this case, the active ingredient would be tirzepatide.

Tirzepatide Injection

However, according to the published results, Tirzepatide would be even more effective than Saxenda. In addition, it would also be an injectable medication, in this case weekly; that is, one puncture a week would suffice. Saxenda application is one injectable per day.

Also, the indications for this drug would be the same as for Saxenda. Especially for patients with a BMI above 30 or above 27.5 with pathologies associated with excess weight, such as
-hypertension
-diabetes.

What Diabetic Drug Helps with Weight Loss?

However, it is essential to remember that the approach to obesity must always be comprehensive. Not only is it enough to take the drug, and that’s it, but there must also be -and significant- changes in lifestyle in terms of diet and physical exercise.
“Obesity is a metabolic, chronic disease that requires a commitment on the part of the patient in terms of lifestyle. It is key to do physical exercise regularly and eat a diet that is as healthy and balanced as possible. Weight loss will be greater if you accompany the drug with diet and exercise,” he says.

Tirzepatide will not be financed against obesity. However, Tirzepatide will soon be available in Spain for treating type 2 diabetes. “probably early next year,” says Lecube, and it will be financed, as is the case with all diabetes drugs.

When Will Tirzepatide be Available?

Ultimately, if it is approved for obesity, it would not be financed by the public health system. The same is with Saxenda because obesity in Spain and other countries is not yet recognized as a chronic disease. Therefore, “patients with obesity should know that they would have to pay for it themselves,” laments the expert.

According to data published by SEEDO, 53.8 % of the Spanish population is overweight, with obesity corresponding to 17.2%. For this reason, the expert insists, it is essential that obesity is recognized for what is a chronic disease. It is also a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death today in Europe. Obesity is also a risk factor for other conditions such as sleep apnea.

So “treating obesity, all associated diseases would be improved, and there would also be a reduction and economic savings,” explains the doctor. And it is something that entities like SEEDO are fighting for.

Last February, this scientific society called for the disease to be recognized as obesity: “This must be the next step to the development of a National Plan aimed at its prevention as well as its correct diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to start financing pharmacological treatment and incorporate professionals from the field of Human Nutrition into multidisciplinary healthcare teams.”

Let’s not forget that obesity is a multi-causal disease in which many factors intervene:
-biological
-genetic
-social
These must address comprehensively. For this reason, “we are fighting for it to be recognized as a disease to give way to treatments that can finance and the patient does not have to pay out of pocket,”

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Peptides for Healing Joints

MOTS-c 5mgPeptides for healing joints, and bones have been around for a long time now. Experts develop many artificial peptides from human peptides to attempt to find cures and treatments for health problems such as muscle wastage and osteoporosis and more. While many research peptides are still in the early testing stage they do show to be effective in treating these problems. Here we look at the basis of peptides for healing joints and what works the best. 

Why Peptide Therapy?

Peptide therapy uses peptides to make a specific reaction in the body. Peptides have a vast range of therapeutic uses. They are the building blocks of proteins and naturally occur in the body. These tiny proteins regulate many healthy functions in the body but tend to decrease with age.

Many people with health problems consider therapeutic peptides as an alternative treatment. They have many uses and can assist with fat loss, increase muscle, promote growth hormone production and help with anti-aging problems.

What is Peptide Therapy

Peptides are amino acids joined together. They are similar to a small protein. Natural peptides have many body functions that work efficiently, including signal and message. Some work like hormones, and others like neurotransmitters. They all work together to control and influence the body, ensuring it is effective. However, with age, the body makes fewer amino acids and proteins and ultimately shows signs of aging. Therefore scientists are working on copying natural peptides to make a substitute to help combat the aging problems that arise. Since 2015 some research peptides have been approved by the FDA for use as a medication.

Peptide Benefits

Researchers are working hard to find new cures for age-related problems that occur when natural peptides decline in the body. Here are some of the benefits of peptide therapy:

  • Improve stamina in workouts and help with recovery
  • Increases lean muscle growth and strength by developing new muscle cells
  • Promotes the body to process fat and reduce fat from lipolysis
  • Increases strength and maintains muscle mass
  • Helps with wound healing
  • Increases natural HGH or growth hormone
  • Improves libido, sleep, and immune system
  • Promotes memory and concentration
  • It can improve skin health, and elasticity and reduce wrinkles

Which Peptide is Best for Healing?

The four peptides for healing and improve tissue repair and recovery are:

Thymosin Beta 4: Promotes regeneration of blood vessels, muscle cell, and skin cell. Thymosin beta stimulates from the thymus gland

MGF – Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) is a potent peptide that causes muscle cells to divide in trauma and create new muscle cells. This results in muscle growth and repair. It is vital for repairing, recovering, and promoting new cells. 

IGF-1 – IGF-1 is the new generation in increasing muscle strength. It is essential for growth in the body.

CJC-1295/Ipamorelin The combination of CJC/1295 and Ipamorelin reduces body fat by forcing the fat to burn from the stored resources. The blend can increase collagen and cellular repair and promote regeneration.

Can Peptides Heal Injuries?

Peptides are still in the early stages of research so many are still only in use for clinical trials. If you are in the research and science community and want any of the above research peptide click here today. We supply the best quality research products, made in the USA, and 99% purity. Our products are for research use only and not for human consumption.

 

 

 

 

 

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Research Peptides for Tendon Repair

Peptides for Tendon RepairResearch peptides for tendon repair exist in the form of BPC-157, but more work needs to be done. BPC-157 peptides are still in the study stage. BPC-157 or body protective compound. It is a man-made protein that shows positive results in healing bones, wounds, improving blood vessels and increasing human growth hormone. BPC 157 is a pentadecapeptide and is not for human use. But, in new studies show it can protect the heart, kidney, and liver. In this post we look at what conditions that one  day BPC-157 peptide will help!

What are the Treatments for Tendinopathy?

Already numerous approaches are available to treat tendinopathy, and research peptides are among them.

So far, tendinitis and tendon adhesions are managed with the following:
-physical therapy
-manual therapy
-electrical stimulation
-medications

Others include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral steroids, and research peptides such as BPC-157.
There are other treatments for tendinopathy, such as platelet-rich plasma injection:
-platelet-rich fibrin glue injection
-tendon ultrasound
-extracorporeal shock wave therapy

Still, the most commonly used approach is to recommend that the patient change their exercise habits or perform therapeutic exercises, such as deep tissue massage, myofascial release, and isokinetic stretching. However, the pathophysiology of tendinopathy is not yet well understood, and treatment is limited.

Many treatments are only cell-based therapies that have shown to be effective in animal models and humans.
To repair damaged tendons, cells must be seeded to the tendon and then cultured before tendon repair can begin. The process of tendon repair, known as tendon healing, is comprised of three primary strategies:

-degeneration of the tendon
-formation of a scar tissue repair
-remodeling of the tendon

Tendon repair can take 3-6 months to restore functional strength fully. The slow tendon repair process means that the number of cells available for tendon repair is negligible.

What is Tendinopathy?

The term “tendinopathy” initially describes the pathology of tendons and has become used to describe many kinds of tendon injury. There are multiple causes of tendon pathology, such as tendonitis, tenosynovitis, tenosynovial friction syndrome, and various degenerative disorders.

Tendon degeneration causes
-rupture
-leading to an increased risk of tendonitis
-adhesions
-attrition
-tendinopathy

Tendinopathy is a painful condition where pain usually occurs at the musculotendinous junction in the presence of overuse or repetitive strain. About 25% of the total population is affected by tendinopathy and tendon pathology in some form.

Peptides for tendon repairWhat are the Signs of Tendinopathy?

Tendinopathy can be asymptomatic and can cause tendon pain and weakness. The most commonly affected tendons are those in the arm and hand, including the Achilles tendon and the long flexor tendons of the fingers. In its chronic stages, it can cause inflammation, tendon tears, and tendinosis, a degenerative state in which the cells in the tendon become dysfunctional and unable to remodel. In this state, the tendon becomes thickened and less elastic. Unlike tendinosis, tendinopathy cannot be reversed! But, you can prevent it. Tendinopathy usually begins in young adulthood, but it can affect tendons throughout life, including the wrist and fingers

What is a Tendon?

Tendon is a connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, transmitting force from one end of strength to another. Muscles are capable of contraction, enabling rapid movement of limbs and extending during rest periods. Tendons perform a much more important role; they connect power to bone, allow the muscle to relax when the muscle is no longer in action, and transmit forces between muscle and bone. Tendons have a low breaking strength, poor regeneration, and limited remodeling ability.

The function of tendons in humans is to withstand force and act as shock absorbers, transferring power across joints and transmitting it to the bone.

Research Peptides for Tendon Repair

Several studies are evolving, particularly the use of cell therapy in tendon repair acute or chronic degenerative tendinopathies.

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been used for tendon repair and cell therapy for tendinopathy, with promising results. They come from the bone marrow and have multilineage differentiation capacity, including that of tendon-like tissue.

BMSCs play a significant role in maintaining tendon integrity and repair. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have the potential for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, with a wide array of therapeutic options that may apply to tendon regeneration.

ADMSCs provide a rich source of easily available autologous cells, and the properties of these cells suggest that they are a suitable candidate for therapeutic use. In addition, these stem cells appear to have therapeutic potential in chronic tendon degeneration because they are more resistant to the effects of tendinopathy than are BMSCs.

What is the Best Peptide for Tendon Repair?

However, few studies have used BMSCs or ADMSCs in humans, and tendon pathologies are still a neglected field. However, new research chemicals are emerging that show promising results in healing wounds one that is showing the best results is BPC-157 peptides. BPC-157 in studies has regenerative and healing effects that might one day be reducing these conditions. To read more about does BPC 157 heal ligaments read this link here!

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What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?

What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?What is the main cause of wrinkles? The skin on your face expresses your emotions. Wrinkles become a part of your body.  Skin aging is due to time and the sun’s effect. It occurs over the entire face or specific areas of the face, such as around the eyes. Sometimes good skincare will decrease the number of wrinkles on the face. It is essential to know that wrinkles can become a part of our face throughout a lifetime. 

They can occur on the forehead, around the eyes, under the eyes, cheekbones, jawline, and mouth corners. In general, a combination of environmental factors and time affects the formation of facial wrinkles. 

People who spend lots of time outdoors are more likely to develop age spots because of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. On the other hand, if you are indoors for most of the day, wrinkles that come to be on your face will be more noticeable. The appearance of these wrinkles can be affected by smoking, lack of sleep, lack of exercise, genetics, and poor nutrition. 

However, we can also prevent them with skin care products that contain effective ingredients that may also help to protect your skin. In this article, we will look at the causes of aging skin and how we can prevent these wrinkles. 

What Causes Wrinkles?

Let us understand how we can prevent the appearance of wrinkles. 

Environmental Factors 

You might be surprised to know that many factors affect how your skin ages are outside your control. These factors include the length of time you spend outdoors, the sun’s rays, the type of air in your environment, and genetics. 

Time 

Our skin cells live for about a month. However, you can damage your skin and face even if you’re very young. The body begins to deteriorate as you age. Our skin is composed of cells, and our cells continue to grow older and die. It causes your skin to lose its elasticity, and wrinkles begin to appear. However, you can delay the signs of aging and wrinkles by avoiding the following habits:

Skin products 

It is essential to be careful about using skin care products that you’re using for your skin. If you are using skin care products loaded with toxins, you are more likely to develop various types of skin disorders. If you’re using these types of products, it’s better to look for some natural skin care products that are safe and provide various benefits for your skin. 

You can use them with the use of a mild scrub. You may also need to look for those natural facial masks that provide various benefits to your skin. If you’re using homemade products, it’s better to do complete research about the available products. As you go for those natural skin care products, you should make sure to buy products available in the market at affordable and economical rates. 

Benefits of Skin Aging Care 

Let’s discuss what you can get in return when using skin aging care. 

Healthier Skin

You can get healthier skin when you start using skin care products suitable for your skin. When you are looking for these products, you should know that you can use them with a mild scrub. They will be gentle for your skin and will be safe to use. 

Improved Skin Texture 

You can get improved skin texture when using natural skin care products. These products may also help in improving your skin texture. To get these results, you should buy the products that benefit your skin. You can also use herbal skin care products.

Better Skin Tone 

In this case, you can use skin care products suitable for your skin. They may help to improve your skin tone as well. In addition, they will also help in protecting your skin from various types of skin disorders. You can also look for those products that are affordable, as well as economical. 

Best 5 Tips to Prevent Skin Aging

 

1. Wash Your Skin Regularly

If you’re using home skin care products, you should be careful about washing your face and body. Wash them often with the use of a mild cleanser. You can also use those products that are suitable for your skin. 

2. Keep Your Skin Hydrated 

When looking for the best skin care products, you should know that you can get many of them at those health food stores. You can also get them in the skincare section of the pharmacy. They may contain herbal extracts or natural ingredients that will help you to maintain your skin’s moisture. 

3. Use the Products That Will Help You Reduce Wrinkles 

You can purchase skin products that can help you reduce your wrinkles. To make them, you should look for products that will be gentle for your skin and safe to use. They may help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. 

4. Use a Face Mask 

Face masks will help you to get healthier skin. They deep clean and remove dirt and bacteria from the skin. There are a wide choice of masks available to suit all skin types. With regular use they can also help in improving your skin texture.  You can also make a homemade mask. When you’re using them, make sure to use them regularly.  

5. Don’t Use The Creams With Toxins 

Avoid using those creams that with toxins. They may damage your skin and your face. However, you can also use natural products that are not loaded with toxins.  

Remove the Makeup 

When using makeup products, ensure you remove them, or they may damage your skin. If you’re using makeup products with toxins, it might be better to change to natural products. However, you can also use the makeup products that will help you to get healthier skin. They may also help to protect your skin from various types of skin disorders. If you’re using them correctly, you will be able to get the desired results. 

Use the Sun Protection Products 

As you know, it is essential to use sunscreen products with high SPF. However, it would be best if you correctly used them. It would help if you started using them when you’re going for outdoor activities. If you’re going for long walks, you need to use sunscreen products on your face. 

Get Some Sleep 

It’s imperative to get a good amount of sleep. However, it’s a fact that we don’t always get the required amount of sleep. That’s because we may be active. If you’re not getting enough sleep, you may get exhausted. It’s vital to take a rest when you feel tired. You can also use those sleep products that will help you have a better sleep. 

Eat Properly 

If you’re looking for skin aging care, you should look for products that will be safe for your skin. It’s also essential to include essential nutrients and vitamins in your diet. If you’re eating those products that will help you get healthy skin, you will be able to get rid of those wrinkles and skin imperfections. If you’re eating unhealthy foods, you may need to look for those that will help you reduce your cholesterol levels. You may need to look for products made with essential nutrients and vitamins. 

Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle 

You should maintain a healthy lifestyle if you’re looking for skin aging care. You need to eat healthy foods. You need to maintain a proper weight if you’re going to have healthy skin. You also need to avoid smoking if you want to get healthy skin. You should also maintain a proper diet if you’re looking for those natural skin care products. 

Avoid Alcohol 

If you’re looking for natural skin aging care, you should look for those products that will be free from Alcohol. It’s imperative to avoid alcoholic beverages to look beautiful and young. You should also avoid caffeine if you’re using skin aging care. 

Conclusion – What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?

It’s vital to know about skin aging if you’re looking for natural skin aging care. If you’re using those types of products, you will be able to maintain your skin in a healthy and youthful way. However, you need to look for those products that will help you get the desired results.