Posted on

KPV Peptide Research Results

KPV peptideKPV peptide  is a tripeptide (Lys-Pro-Val), which possesses anti-inflammatory properties; however, its mechanisms of action still remain unknown. We do know however that this peptide has these qualities.

>>BUY KPV PEPTIDE HERE<<

 

    1. Anti-inflammatory

2. Anti-microbial

3.  Used in healing wounds & injuries

4. Helps with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) and colitis

5. Some benefits with cancer

Where to Buy KPV Peptide

KPV is a peptide that many of us are not as familiar with compared with Adipotide etc. KPV is however showing a healthy interest among many research peptides buyers. Up until the last 2 years, this was almost unheard of, but these days we find the popularity has exploded.

Getting hold of KPV peptide is simple however one needs to be cautious as to where to buy it.

Thankfully, Peptide Sciences stock what we regard as the very purest KPV peptide in the United States! An old-timer in the industry, Peptide Sciences has a huge stock range for all research purposes.

What do we know about KPV peptide and how does it work?

KPV is a tripeptide (Lys-Pro-Val) and there is still no clear mechanism of action for KPV (for example, its cellular target(s) has not been identified yet). Since this type of peptide is structurally identical to the tripeptide (Lys-Val-Val), we do not know whether the pharmacological properties of KPV result from the specific effect on one or more cellular targets or from its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.

KPV Peptide anti-inflammatory properties

Nevertheless, KPV peptide has anti-inflammatory properties. This includes inhibiting several aspects of the inflammatory response, such as endothelial cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Moreover, KPV inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by inflammatory cells (1-5). The KPV peptide is also able to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Protection against Inflammatory Tissue Destruction

The KPV peptide also inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, which plays an important role in inflammatory tissue destruction, cell migration, and apoptosis. What are the mechanisms of KPV action? The mechanism of action of the KPV peptide in the reduction of inflammatory parameters may involve either direct or indirect effects. KPV has the potential to interact with several signaling pathways at the level of mRNA transcription and translation, protein synthesis, activation of transcription factors, and enzymatic activities. We will briefly describe some of the cellular targets of KPV here and refer the reader to our review for a more in-depth analysis of KPV molecular mechanisms of action.

KPV and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/TLR4 Inflammatory responses can also be induced by interaction of cells with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through the interaction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with the corresponding PAMPs. TLR2 and TLR4 are expressed by immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. KPV (and other antimicrobial peptides), as well as the TLR2 and TLR4 ligands, share common characteristics, such as a positive charge, a hydrophobic segment, and a variable number of positive residues at the C-terminus.

In this context, it is possible that KPV acts as a ligand of TLR2 and TLR4. Further studies are required to investigate whether KPV is indeed a TLR2 or TLR4 ligand. KPV and the NF-κB pathway Another possible mechanism of KPV action is related to its ability to modulate the NF-κB pathway. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors, which control the expression of many immune and inflammatory genes. In resting cells, NF-κB dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm by IκB, an inhibitory protein. Activation of the NF-κB pathway involves dissociation of the IκB dimer from the NF-κB dimer, allowing the translocation of the NF-κB dimer to the nucleus, where it can initiate the transcription of target genes (Figure 1). There are several types of NF-κB: p50/p65, p52/p65, p65/c-Rel, p65/Rel B, and c-Rel/p50. The NF-κB pathway is essential for the expression of numerous immune and inflammatory genes, including the genes encoding TNFα and iNOS. It has also been reported that the NF-κB pathway may