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Introduction to Peptides

introduction to peptides

This introduction to Peptides will give you a concise intro to the world of peptides and their uses in medicine.

Peptides in cosmetic products have gained popularity in recent years. But are they really the ultimate silver bullet against skin aging and wrinkles, or overrated ingredients with no scientific basis?

In this article we want to explore what peptides are in general and whether they can be useful in cosmetics. Unfortunately, our assumption is solidified: peptides are initially more of a marketing ploy than substances with a proven effect.

What are peptides?
Peptides are smaller proteins (proteins). Its building blocks are multiple amino acids linked by peptide bonds, hence the name. Peptides have numerous functions in nature – some act as messengers in plants, others are hormones in the human body.

It therefore makes no sense to speak of the one peptide. They are a very large class of substances, so it makes no sense to use this term to advertise them. There are various peptides with theoretical properties. But can these unfold in our cosmetics?

Introduction to Peptide in cosmetics and Medicine

Peptides are now said to have strong anti-aging properties. This is partly because they could theoretically stimulate collagen production in the skin.

Collagen is itself a protein (a larger peptide) and helps keep skin looking healthy and firm. Other peptides have strong anti-inflammatory properties that are also good for the skin. Even if these facts sound nice, there are still no studies that prove the effectiveness in our skin.

In order to develop their properties, peptides would have to penetrate through the skin. However, there are numerous enzymes in the skin that are specialized in destroying foreign substances (including peptides). In fact, the skin allows very few substances through because it always wants to protect itself from possible dangers. This means that peptides are only able to penetrate the skin to trigger positive effects under very special conditions that have yet to be researched.

So it is still unclear whether peptides can work in our skin. It is medically probable that they will not even get to where they are supposed to work.

In this article we will show you ingredients that really help against wrinkles.

Introduction to Peptides in Cosmetics

Although cosmetic products with peptides have promising properties in purely theoretical terms, there is still a lack of scientific evidence of their effectiveness in living organisms. In addition, most products containing peptides are unnecessarily overpriced. Admittedly, a newly discovered peptide with an incomprehensible name sounds innovative and somehow interesting.

But if you look closely at the science, it becomes clear that vitamin C and retinol are substances with solid scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Vitamin C not only protects against free radicals that age skin, but actually stimulates collagen production . Vitamin A also stimulates skin renewal.

These are effects that peptides only promise, but so far nobody has seen. Further research remains to be seen.

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KPV Peptide Research Results

KPV peptideKPV peptide  is a tripeptide (Lys-Pro-Val), which possesses anti-inflammatory properties; however, its mechanisms of action still remain unknown. We do know however that this peptide has these qualities.

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    1. Anti-inflammatory

2. Anti-microbial

3.  Used in healing wounds & injuries

4. Helps with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) and colitis

5. Some benefits with cancer

Where to Buy KPV Peptide

KPV is a peptide that many of us are not as familiar with compared with Adipotide etc. KPV is however showing a healthy interest among many research peptides buyers. Up until the last 2 years, this was almost unheard of, but these days we find the popularity has exploded.

Getting hold of KPV peptide is simple however one needs to be cautious as to where to buy it.

Thankfully, Peptide Sciences stock what we regard as the very purest KPV peptide in the United States! An old-timer in the industry, Peptide Sciences has a huge stock range for all research purposes.

What do we know about KPV peptide and how does it work?

KPV is a tripeptide (Lys-Pro-Val) and there is still no clear mechanism of action for KPV (for example, its cellular target(s) has not been identified yet). Since this type of peptide is structurally identical to the tripeptide (Lys-Val-Val), we do not know whether the pharmacological properties of KPV result from the specific effect on one or more cellular targets or from its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.

KPV Peptide anti-inflammatory properties

Nevertheless, KPV peptide has anti-inflammatory properties. This includes inhibiting several aspects of the inflammatory response, such as endothelial cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Moreover, KPV inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by inflammatory cells (1-5). The KPV peptide is also able to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Protection against Inflammatory Tissue Destruction

The KPV peptide also inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, which plays an important role in inflammatory tissue destruction, cell migration, and apoptosis. What are the mechanisms of KPV action? The mechanism of action of the KPV peptide in the reduction of inflammatory parameters may involve either direct or indirect effects. KPV has the potential to interact with several signaling pathways at the level of mRNA transcription and translation, protein synthesis, activation of transcription factors, and enzymatic activities. We will briefly describe some of the cellular targets of KPV here and refer the reader to our review for a more in-depth analysis of KPV molecular mechanisms of action.

KPV and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2/TLR4 Inflammatory responses can also be induced by interaction of cells with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through the interaction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with the corresponding PAMPs. TLR2 and TLR4 are expressed by immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. KPV (and other antimicrobial peptides), as well as the TLR2 and TLR4 ligands, share common characteristics, such as a positive charge, a hydrophobic segment, and a variable number of positive residues at the C-terminus.

In this context, it is possible that KPV acts as a ligand of TLR2 and TLR4. Further studies are required to investigate whether KPV is indeed a TLR2 or TLR4 ligand. KPV and the NF-κB pathway Another possible mechanism of KPV action is related to its ability to modulate the NF-κB pathway. NF-κB is a family of transcription factors, which control the expression of many immune and inflammatory genes. In resting cells, NF-κB dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm by IκB, an inhibitory protein. Activation of the NF-κB pathway involves dissociation of the IκB dimer from the NF-κB dimer, allowing the translocation of the NF-κB dimer to the nucleus, where it can initiate the transcription of target genes (Figure 1). There are several types of NF-κB: p50/p65, p52/p65, p65/c-Rel, p65/Rel B, and c-Rel/p50. The NF-κB pathway is essential for the expression of numerous immune and inflammatory genes, including the genes encoding TNFα and iNOS. It has also been reported that the NF-κB pathway may