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Introduction To SS-31 Peptide
The SS-31 peptide, is also known as Elamipretide or Bendavia. It is a synthetic peptide that selectively targets the inner mitochondrial membrane. It has shown promise in preclinical studies for various diseases and conditions. This article provides an overview of what the SS-31 peptide is, how it works, and the potential benefits it offers in treating multiple disorders.
What Is SS-31 Peptide?
SS-31 peptide is a synthetic peptide that can penetrate cells and explicitly targets the inner mitochondrial membrane. Initially developed to address mitochondrial dysfunction-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, heart failure, and metabolic diseases, it has a unique amino acid sequence (D-Arg-2′,6′-dimethylTyr-Lys-Phe-NH2). This sequence allows it to bind to cardiolipin, a phospholipid found predominantly in the inner mitochondrial membrane, protecting mitochondrial function from oxidative stress.
What Is The Mechanism Of Action Of SS-31?
The primary mechanism of action of the SS-31 peptide involves its interaction with cardiolipin. Cardiolipin plays a vital role in maintaining the structure and function of the mitochondrial inner membrane. It helps stabilize mitochondrial membrane protein complexes, regulate membrane curvature, and preserve mitochondrial structure.
SS-31 peptide interacts with cardiolipin to influence membrane curvature and prevent damage caused by peroxidation, which can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. It can enhance electron transport chain complex coupling, reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and safeguard cardiolipin from peroxidative damage. These actions contribute to improved mitochondrial function and reduced oxidative stress in cells.
Potential Benefits Of SS-31 Peptide
In preclinical studies focused on neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, the SS-31 peptide has demonstrated promising results. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and increased oxidative stress, which can lead to neuronal cell death.
In cellular and animal models of Alzheimer’s disease, SS-31 peptide can enhance mitochondrial function, reduce ROS production, and protect against toxicity induced by amyloid-beta. Models of Parkinson’s disease has shown the ability to improve mitochondrial bioenergetics, reduce oxidative stress, and promote neuronal survival.
SS-31 peptide has exhibited the potential to improve mitochondrial function in heart failure models. Heart failure can impair energy production and heighten oxidative stress in the heart. SS-31 peptide has shown signs of protecting the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury, a significant cause of heart failure, by reducing ROS production, preserving mitochondrial function, and preventing cardiomyocyte death.
Furthermore, in animal models of dilated cardiomyopathy and ataxia syndrome (DCMA), a rare mitochondrial disease associated with heart failure. The SS-31 peptide can enhance cardiac function. In these models, it can reverse mitochondrial fragmentation, reduce ROS production, and improve cardiac function.
SS-31 peptide has shown potential in treating metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity. In diabetic animal models, it has been observed to enhance mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, liver, and heart tissues. It also reduces oxidative stress, improves glucose tolerance, and enhances insulin sensitivity. In obese animals, SS-31 peptide has been shown to increase fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure, leading to weight reduction and improved metabolic health.
Other Diseases And Conditions
SS-31 peptide has demonstrated promise in addressing other diseases and conditions associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, such as:
- Friedreich’s ataxia: In cellular models of Friedreich’s ataxia, the SS-31 peptide has been reported to upregulate frataxin expression, improve mitochondrial function, and protect against oxidative stress. Friedreich’s ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease associated with cardiomyopathy.
- Acute kidney injury: Animal models have shown that SS-31 peptide can protect against ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury. It achieves this by reducing ROS production and preserving mitochondrial function.
- Age-related macular degeneration: SS-31 peptide has been found to protect retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. It suggests potential benefits in age-related macular degeneration.
The optimal SS-31 peptide for human use has yet to be established, as clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate its safety and effectiveness in various diseases. In preclinical studies, amounts ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg/day have been given, depending on the specific model and disease.
What Are The Benefits Of SS-31 Peptide?
SS-31 peptide shows promise as a therapeutic agent for various diseases and conditions associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Targeting cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane offers potential benefits in treating neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure, metabolic diseases, and other conditions related to mitochondrial dysfunction.
However, it is essential to note that most studies have been preclinical, utilizing cellular and animal models. More research, including human clinical trials, is necessary to determine the safety, efficacy, of SS-31 peptides for treating different human diseases and conditions.