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Tirzepatide for Weight Loss

 Tirzepatide for Weight LossTirzepatide for Weight Loss: Tirzepatide is marketed under the brand name Mounjaro. It is a drug approved in the US for treating type 2 diabetes. However, the studies currently being carried out promising offer results also in the treatment of obesity.

Tirzepatide Weight Loss Study

Studies show some patients able to lose weight lose an average of 20% body weight. It shows the results of the SURMOUNT-1 clinical trial, carried out in the USA and recently published in the scientific journal The New England Journal of Medicine. In more detail, according to the study, treatment with high doses of tirzepatide (about 15 mg weekly) would cause them to lose about 22.5% of their body weight.

“The study that is already in phase III of safety and efficacy for the treatment of obesity, indicates that, effectively, it could reduce an average of up to 20% of body weight in some patients”. States Dr Albert Lecube, Vice President of the Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity (SEEDO) and Head of Endocrinology at the Arnau de Vilanova University Hospital (Lleida).

“It is better to express it as a percentage of weight loss because if you weigh 200 kilos with the drug, you still lose 40 kilos; or if you have 80 kilos, you still lose 10. That is to say, it does not mean that everyone who takes it -speaking in a way every day- will stay in the bones. By doing the treatment well, you will lose between 20-25 kilos, on average. However, there will possibly continue to be people who will lose more and others less”, clarifies the expert.

How Does Tirzepatide Work for Weight Loss?

This drug would have a double action against obesity. As the doctor explains, it acts against satiety signals, reducing appetite. The GLP-1 peptide (like other medications indicated for obesity such as Saxenda or Wegovy already did, the latter approved only in the US) activates another component called GIP that could imply body fat regulation. “This synergy would make it more powerful, and therefore, the body would be able to lose much more weight,” he says.

If this drug is for treating obesity, it will join other medical therapies such as Saxenda. Saxenda is the most effective medication available in Spain, from which some patients with obesity have benefited since 2016. Likewise, Saxenda shares the same active ingredient (liraglutide) for treating type 2 diabetes, but with different doses and indications. Once again, it proves that a drug against type 2 diabetes also has benefits in treating obesity. In this case, the active ingredient would be tirzepatide.

Tirzepatide Injection

However, according to the published results, Tirzepatide would be even more effective than Saxenda. In addition, it would also be an injectable medication, in this case weekly; that is, one puncture a week would suffice. Saxenda application is one injectable per day.

Also, the indications for this drug would be the same as for Saxenda. Especially for patients with a BMI above 30 or above 27.5 with pathologies associated with excess weight, such as
-hypertension
-diabetes.

What Diabetic Drug Helps with Weight Loss?

However, it is essential to remember that the approach to obesity must always be comprehensive. Not only is it enough to take the drug, and that’s it, but there must also be -and significant- changes in lifestyle in terms of diet and physical exercise.
“Obesity is a metabolic, chronic disease that requires a commitment on the part of the patient in terms of lifestyle. It is key to do physical exercise regularly and eat a diet that is as healthy and balanced as possible. Weight loss will be greater if you accompany the drug with diet and exercise,” he says.

Tirzepatide will not be financed against obesity. However, Tirzepatide will soon be available in Spain for treating type 2 diabetes. “probably early next year,” says Lecube, and it will be financed, as is the case with all diabetes drugs.

When Will Tirzepatide be Available?

Ultimately, if it is approved for obesity, it would not be financed by the public health system. The same is with Saxenda because obesity in Spain and other countries is not yet recognized as a chronic disease. Therefore, “patients with obesity should know that they would have to pay for it themselves,” laments the expert.

According to data published by SEEDO, 53.8 % of the Spanish population is overweight, with obesity corresponding to 17.2%. For this reason, the expert insists, it is essential that obesity is recognized for what is a chronic disease. It is also a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death today in Europe. Obesity is also a risk factor for other conditions such as sleep apnea.

So “treating obesity, all associated diseases would be improved, and there would also be a reduction and economic savings,” explains the doctor. And it is something that entities like SEEDO are fighting for.

Last February, this scientific society called for the disease to be recognized as obesity: “This must be the next step to the development of a National Plan aimed at its prevention as well as its correct diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to start financing pharmacological treatment and incorporate professionals from the field of Human Nutrition into multidisciplinary healthcare teams.”

Let’s not forget that obesity is a multi-causal disease in which many factors intervene:
-biological
-genetic
-social
These must address comprehensively. For this reason, “we are fighting for it to be recognized as a disease to give way to treatments that can finance and the patient does not have to pay out of pocket,”

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Peptides for Healing Joints

MOTS-c 5mgPeptides for healing joints, and bones have been around for a long time now. Experts develop many artificial peptides from human peptides to attempt to find cures and treatments for health problems such as muscle wastage and osteoporosis and more. While many research peptides are still in the early testing stage they do show to be effective in treating these problems. Here we look at the basis of peptides for healing joints and what works the best. 

Why Peptide Therapy?

Peptide therapy uses peptides to make a specific reaction in the body. Peptides have a vast range of therapeutic uses. They are the building blocks of proteins and naturally occur in the body. These tiny proteins regulate many healthy functions in the body but tend to decrease with age.

Many people with health problems consider therapeutic peptides as an alternative treatment. They have many uses and can assist with fat loss, increase muscle, promote growth hormone production and help with anti-aging problems.

What is Peptide Therapy

Peptides are amino acids joined together. They are similar to a small protein. Natural peptides have many body functions that work efficiently, including signal and message. Some work like hormones, and others like neurotransmitters. They all work together to control and influence the body, ensuring it is effective. However, with age, the body makes fewer amino acids and proteins and ultimately shows signs of aging. Therefore scientists are working on copying natural peptides to make a substitute to help combat the aging problems that arise. Since 2015 some research peptides have been approved by the FDA for use as a medication.

Peptide Benefits

Researchers are working hard to find new cures for age-related problems that occur when natural peptides decline in the body. Here are some of the benefits of peptide therapy:

  • Improve stamina in workouts and help with recovery
  • Increases lean muscle growth and strength by developing new muscle cells
  • Promotes the body to process fat and reduce fat from lipolysis
  • Increases strength and maintains muscle mass
  • Helps with wound healing
  • Increases natural HGH or growth hormone
  • Improves libido, sleep, and immune system
  • Promotes memory and concentration
  • It can improve skin health, and elasticity and reduce wrinkles

Which Peptide is Best for Healing?

The four peptides for healing and improve tissue repair and recovery are:

Thymosin Beta 4: Promotes regeneration of blood vessels, muscle cell, and skin cell. Thymosin beta stimulates from the thymus gland

MGF – Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) is a potent peptide that causes muscle cells to divide in trauma and create new muscle cells. This results in muscle growth and repair. It is vital for repairing, recovering, and promoting new cells. 

IGF-1 – IGF-1 is the new generation in increasing muscle strength. It is essential for growth in the body.

CJC-1295/Ipamorelin The combination of CJC/1295 and Ipamorelin reduces body fat by forcing the fat to burn from the stored resources. The blend can increase collagen and cellular repair and promote regeneration.

Can Peptides Heal Injuries?

Peptides are still in the early stages of research so many are still only in use for clinical trials. If you are in the research and science community and want any of the above research peptide click here today. We supply the best quality research products, made in the USA, and 99% purity. Our products are for research use only and not for human consumption.

 

 

 

 

 

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Research Peptides for Tendon Repair

Peptides for Tendon RepairResearch peptides for tendon repair exist in the form of BPC-157, but more work needs to be done. BPC-157 peptides are still in the study stage. BPC-157 or body protective compound. It is a man-made protein that shows positive results in healing bones, wounds, improving blood vessels and increasing human growth hormone. BPC 157 is a pentadecapeptide and is not for human use. But, in new studies show it can protect the heart, kidney, and liver. In this post we look at what conditions that one  day BPC-157 peptide will help!

What are the Treatments for Tendinopathy?

Already numerous approaches are available to treat tendinopathy, and research peptides are among them.

So far, tendinitis and tendon adhesions are managed with the following:
-physical therapy
-manual therapy
-electrical stimulation
-medications

Others include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral steroids, and research peptides such as BPC-157.
There are other treatments for tendinopathy, such as platelet-rich plasma injection:
-platelet-rich fibrin glue injection
-tendon ultrasound
-extracorporeal shock wave therapy

Still, the most commonly used approach is to recommend that the patient change their exercise habits or perform therapeutic exercises, such as deep tissue massage, myofascial release, and isokinetic stretching. However, the pathophysiology of tendinopathy is not yet well understood, and treatment is limited.

Many treatments are only cell-based therapies that have shown to be effective in animal models and humans.
To repair damaged tendons, cells must be seeded to the tendon and then cultured before tendon repair can begin. The process of tendon repair, known as tendon healing, is comprised of three primary strategies:

-degeneration of the tendon
-formation of a scar tissue repair
-remodeling of the tendon

Tendon repair can take 3-6 months to restore functional strength fully. The slow tendon repair process means that the number of cells available for tendon repair is negligible.

What is Tendinopathy?

The term “tendinopathy” initially describes the pathology of tendons and has become used to describe many kinds of tendon injury. There are multiple causes of tendon pathology, such as tendonitis, tenosynovitis, tenosynovial friction syndrome, and various degenerative disorders.

Tendon degeneration causes
-rupture
-leading to an increased risk of tendonitis
-adhesions
-attrition
-tendinopathy

Tendinopathy is a painful condition where pain usually occurs at the musculotendinous junction in the presence of overuse or repetitive strain. About 25% of the total population is affected by tendinopathy and tendon pathology in some form.

Peptides for tendon repairWhat are the Signs of Tendinopathy?

Tendinopathy can be asymptomatic and can cause tendon pain and weakness. The most commonly affected tendons are those in the arm and hand, including the Achilles tendon and the long flexor tendons of the fingers. In its chronic stages, it can cause inflammation, tendon tears, and tendinosis, a degenerative state in which the cells in the tendon become dysfunctional and unable to remodel. In this state, the tendon becomes thickened and less elastic. Unlike tendinosis, tendinopathy cannot be reversed! But, you can prevent it. Tendinopathy usually begins in young adulthood, but it can affect tendons throughout life, including the wrist and fingers

What is a Tendon?

Tendon is a connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, transmitting force from one end of strength to another. Muscles are capable of contraction, enabling rapid movement of limbs and extending during rest periods. Tendons perform a much more important role; they connect power to bone, allow the muscle to relax when the muscle is no longer in action, and transmit forces between muscle and bone. Tendons have a low breaking strength, poor regeneration, and limited remodeling ability.

The function of tendons in humans is to withstand force and act as shock absorbers, transferring power across joints and transmitting it to the bone.

Research Peptides for Tendon Repair

Several studies are evolving, particularly the use of cell therapy in tendon repair acute or chronic degenerative tendinopathies.

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been used for tendon repair and cell therapy for tendinopathy, with promising results. They come from the bone marrow and have multilineage differentiation capacity, including that of tendon-like tissue.

BMSCs play a significant role in maintaining tendon integrity and repair. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have the potential for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, with a wide array of therapeutic options that may apply to tendon regeneration.

ADMSCs provide a rich source of easily available autologous cells, and the properties of these cells suggest that they are a suitable candidate for therapeutic use. In addition, these stem cells appear to have therapeutic potential in chronic tendon degeneration because they are more resistant to the effects of tendinopathy than are BMSCs.

What is the Best Peptide for Tendon Repair?

However, few studies have used BMSCs or ADMSCs in humans, and tendon pathologies are still a neglected field. However, new research chemicals are emerging that show promising results in healing wounds one that is showing the best results is BPC-157 peptides. BPC-157 in studies has regenerative and healing effects that might one day be reducing these conditions. To read more about does BPC 157 heal ligaments read this link here!

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What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?

What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?What is the main cause of wrinkles? The skin on your face expresses your emotions. Wrinkles become a part of your body.  Skin aging is due to time and the sun’s effect. It occurs over the entire face or specific areas of the face, such as around the eyes. Sometimes good skincare will decrease the number of wrinkles on the face. It is essential to know that wrinkles can become a part of our face throughout a lifetime. 

They can occur on the forehead, around the eyes, under the eyes, cheekbones, jawline, and mouth corners. In general, a combination of environmental factors and time affects the formation of facial wrinkles. 

People who spend lots of time outdoors are more likely to develop age spots because of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. On the other hand, if you are indoors for most of the day, wrinkles that come to be on your face will be more noticeable. The appearance of these wrinkles can be affected by smoking, lack of sleep, lack of exercise, genetics, and poor nutrition. 

However, we can also prevent them with skin care products that contain effective ingredients that may also help to protect your skin. In this article, we will look at the causes of aging skin and how we can prevent these wrinkles. 

What Causes Wrinkles?

Let us understand how we can prevent the appearance of wrinkles. 

Environmental Factors 

You might be surprised to know that many factors affect how your skin ages are outside your control. These factors include the length of time you spend outdoors, the sun’s rays, the type of air in your environment, and genetics. 

Time 

Our skin cells live for about a month. However, you can damage your skin and face even if you’re very young. The body begins to deteriorate as you age. Our skin is composed of cells, and our cells continue to grow older and die. It causes your skin to lose its elasticity, and wrinkles begin to appear. However, you can delay the signs of aging and wrinkles by avoiding the following habits:

Skin products 

It is essential to be careful about using skin care products that you’re using for your skin. If you are using skin care products loaded with toxins, you are more likely to develop various types of skin disorders. If you’re using these types of products, it’s better to look for some natural skin care products that are safe and provide various benefits for your skin. 

You can use them with the use of a mild scrub. You may also need to look for those natural facial masks that provide various benefits to your skin. If you’re using homemade products, it’s better to do complete research about the available products. As you go for those natural skin care products, you should make sure to buy products available in the market at affordable and economical rates. 

Benefits of Skin Aging Care 

Let’s discuss what you can get in return when using skin aging care. 

Healthier Skin

You can get healthier skin when you start using skin care products suitable for your skin. When you are looking for these products, you should know that you can use them with a mild scrub. They will be gentle for your skin and will be safe to use. 

Improved Skin Texture 

You can get improved skin texture when using natural skin care products. These products may also help in improving your skin texture. To get these results, you should buy the products that benefit your skin. You can also use herbal skin care products.

Better Skin Tone 

In this case, you can use skin care products suitable for your skin. They may help to improve your skin tone as well. In addition, they will also help in protecting your skin from various types of skin disorders. You can also look for those products that are affordable, as well as economical. 

Best 5 Tips to Prevent Skin Aging

 

1. Wash Your Skin Regularly

If you’re using home skin care products, you should be careful about washing your face and body. Wash them often with the use of a mild cleanser. You can also use those products that are suitable for your skin. 

2. Keep Your Skin Hydrated 

When looking for the best skin care products, you should know that you can get many of them at those health food stores. You can also get them in the skincare section of the pharmacy. They may contain herbal extracts or natural ingredients that will help you to maintain your skin’s moisture. 

3. Use the Products That Will Help You Reduce Wrinkles 

You can purchase skin products that can help you reduce your wrinkles. To make them, you should look for products that will be gentle for your skin and safe to use. They may help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. 

4. Use a Face Mask 

Face masks will help you to get healthier skin. They deep clean and remove dirt and bacteria from the skin. There are a wide choice of masks available to suit all skin types. With regular use they can also help in improving your skin texture.  You can also make a homemade mask. When you’re using them, make sure to use them regularly.  

5. Don’t Use The Creams With Toxins 

Avoid using those creams that with toxins. They may damage your skin and your face. However, you can also use natural products that are not loaded with toxins.  

Remove the Makeup 

When using makeup products, ensure you remove them, or they may damage your skin. If you’re using makeup products with toxins, it might be better to change to natural products. However, you can also use the makeup products that will help you to get healthier skin. They may also help to protect your skin from various types of skin disorders. If you’re using them correctly, you will be able to get the desired results. 

Use the Sun Protection Products 

As you know, it is essential to use sunscreen products with high SPF. However, it would be best if you correctly used them. It would help if you started using them when you’re going for outdoor activities. If you’re going for long walks, you need to use sunscreen products on your face. 

Get Some Sleep 

It’s imperative to get a good amount of sleep. However, it’s a fact that we don’t always get the required amount of sleep. That’s because we may be active. If you’re not getting enough sleep, you may get exhausted. It’s vital to take a rest when you feel tired. You can also use those sleep products that will help you have a better sleep. 

Eat Properly 

If you’re looking for skin aging care, you should look for products that will be safe for your skin. It’s also essential to include essential nutrients and vitamins in your diet. If you’re eating those products that will help you get healthy skin, you will be able to get rid of those wrinkles and skin imperfections. If you’re eating unhealthy foods, you may need to look for those that will help you reduce your cholesterol levels. You may need to look for products made with essential nutrients and vitamins. 

Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle 

You should maintain a healthy lifestyle if you’re looking for skin aging care. You need to eat healthy foods. You need to maintain a proper weight if you’re going to have healthy skin. You also need to avoid smoking if you want to get healthy skin. You should also maintain a proper diet if you’re looking for those natural skin care products. 

Avoid Alcohol 

If you’re looking for natural skin aging care, you should look for those products that will be free from Alcohol. It’s imperative to avoid alcoholic beverages to look beautiful and young. You should also avoid caffeine if you’re using skin aging care. 

Conclusion – What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?

It’s vital to know about skin aging if you’re looking for natural skin aging care. If you’re using those types of products, you will be able to maintain your skin in a healthy and youthful way. However, you need to look for those products that will help you get the desired results.  

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Ghrelin Acetate Buy for Research

Ghrelin Acetate BuyGhrelin Acetate buy here today at the affordable price of $56.00. We are the one-stop-shop to buy the best research chemicals for education and research. So if you are in the research industry and want Ghrelin Acetate buy here today. Our research products are safe and made in the USA by Peptides Sciences. With over 180 research products we guarantee you will find what you are looking for. So when asking can I buy ghrelin? Or any other research product click here today!

What does Ghrelin do?

Ghrelin Acetate is a natural peptide hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also called Lenomorelin. In science it is known as the Hunger hormone, and all about ghrelin and its effect on weight

Ghrelin is a hormone also known as the “hunger hormone” because it regulates appetite. It is synthesized and released mainly in the stomach and is responsible for regulating blood sugar, preventing muscle atrophy and protecting the heart.

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In this article will look in detail at everything you need to know about the hunger hormone – its functions and how a person can manage its levels in the body.

Hunger Hormone – Nature and Functions

It is excreted mainly in the stomach when empty in the small intestine, brain and pancreas. Its popular name is the “hunger hormone” because its primary function is to regulates appetite.

When ghrelin activates its growth hormone secretagogue receptor, it causes us to feel hungry, which causes us to consume more food. It is stored in the body as extra fat.

The hormone of hunger through the bloodstream reaches the brain, acting on the so-called hypothalamus. It is a brain structure that synthesizes hormones that regulate hunger, emotions, thirst and many other essential conditions in the body.

In people trying to lose weight or who have recently lost weight, ghrelin levels are usually high, and it is challenging to maintain average body weight.

Effects on the Body

Sleep problems
Menopause symptoms
Perimenopause

In addition to stimulating the appetite, ghrelin can signal the body to reduce the thermogenesis of brown fats. When this happens, the body burns less fat at rest.

Brown fat is known as good body fat. It consists of cells that contain tiny fat droplets and many mitochondria that give it its typical color.

Under certain conditions, the cells of this brown tissue burn fat droplets and convert them into heat energy. That is why brown fat is known for its thermogenic properties and its ability to increase the total calories burned.

Ghrelin also affects:

the cycle of sleep and wakefulness
the sense of taste
eating for pleasure
by stimulating impulses from the stomach to the brain center for reward satisfaction
On the positive side, the hunger hormone improves heart health, prevents muscle atrophy, and affects bone metabolism.

It can also stimulate the secretion of stomach acid and thus accelerate the stomach emptying from fluids and solids.

Apart from dictating hunger ghrelin has several other functions:

Pituitary gland secretion: The pituitary gland is in the brain, and its primary function is to secrete hormones. It consists of two main parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe.

Ghrelin helps the pituitary gland to secrete the so-called adenohypophysis hormones.

Insulin regulation: The hormone is involved in insulin regulation by controlling insulin secretion and signaling insulin receptors.

Cardiovascular health: Ghrelin has several beneficial effects on the heart and may be a promising therapeutic agent in treating cardiovascular disease.

Reward-based behavior: As we have noted, the hormone stimulates a person’s sense of reward. Therefore, this hormone is a factor in hedonic eating, in which meals are for pleasure, not a necessity.

Sexual behavior: there are not enough studies to confirm the connection between ghrelin and the desire for sex, but there are severe scientific assumptions in this regard.

What Causes an Increase in Hunger Hormone Levels?

Hunger hormone, Ghrelin, Keto fever, and Autoimmune diseases

Its levels often change during the day and are controlled mainly by food intake. The hormone rises when the stomach is empty and decreases after a person eats. People who are overweight or obese have higher levels of circulating ghrelin. It can lead to a constant state of hunger and hinder weight loss.

When dieting with a yo-yo effect, hormone levels rise sharply, and the impact of weight loss is easily and quickly lost. When following different diets, it is essential not to allow a state of hunger, which activates ghrelin in the body.

In specific health problems, ghrelin also changes its typical values. Such diseases are:

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
nervousness caused by chronic stress
anorexia
bulimia
cachexia

Where Can I Get Ghrelin?

Healthy Diet

Hunger hormone levels rise when you don’t get enough calories. Avoiding starvation and following a nutrient-rich diet can help limit ghrelin secretion.

Focus on the consumption of:

-cruciferous vegetables
-Forest fruits
-high fibre products
-dairy products
-pure protein
-healthy oils such as extra virgin olive oil, coconut oil and those found naturally in other nuts and oily fish

Get enough sleep

Insomnia and lack of sleep increase ghrelin secretion and decrease serum leptin levels, the so-called “Satiety hormone”. It leads to a feeling of hunger. You need to get 7 hours of quality sleep a day.

Eat more protein and combine carbohydrates

Eating high-protein meals and snacks can help saturate and reduce ghrelin levels. Many nutrition studies have shown a significant reduction in hunger and increased satiety after a high-protein diet.

Limit Stress

Although it is almost impossible to eliminate stress, it is essential to limit it as much as possible. High levels of chronic stress can lead to elevated levels of ghrelin. In addition to signaling hunger, ghrelin also affects brain function. Regular physical activity, proper sleep and practicing yoga or meditation help minimize stress.

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Muscle Tissue

Muscle TissueIntroduction Muscle Tissue

Muscle tissue is part of the four primary tissues of the body, and its functions are: to assist in locomotion and movement of the limbs (musculoskeletal system), motility of some organs (smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract), control of the secretion of some glands (Smooth muscle ), chewing (masseter and temporalis muscle, for example), contractile activity (heart) and feeding (most of the meat is muscle tissue).

Muscle tissue divides into three major groups: Skeletal Muscle Tissue (the large majority of muscles), Cardiac Muscle Tissue (heart muscle) and Smooth Muscle (a muscle that surrounds some organs and tissues). Muscles are different in the size and number of muscle fibers, organization of contractile elements, and type of innervation.

Muscle Tissue Types

Even with its differences, muscle tissue has some characteristics that are common to all types, such as common embryonic origin, large amount of mitochondria, to supply its high energy requirement; contact elements, derived from filamentous proteins mainly actin and myosin.

Another characteristic of this tissue is its high vascularization, which is necessary to maintain a good amount of energetic substrates (Glucose and lipids, for example) and oxygen, which is essential for an adequate aerobic muscle contraction. In the absence of good oxygenation for the muscle, intense exercise, for example, starts to contract in an anaerobic way, generating lactic acid that is aggressive to the muscle fibers, fatigue, and causing pain.

Muscle tissue also has a high innervation, especially skeletal muscle tissue, as in this case, each muscle fiber has its innervation.

Muscle cells have characteristic names such as Sarcolemma (Plasmalemma), is the plasma membrane of muscle cells, although it can also be used to designate the basal lamina and reticular fibers; Sarcoplasm, used to designate the cytoplasm; Sarcosomes, used to designate the mitochondria; sarcoplasmic reticulum, used to designate the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (REL) of skeletal and cardiac muscles, as their REL are an essential reservoir of Ca² for the contraction of these cells.

Embryonic Origin

Although the three types of musculature originate in the embryonic layer of the mesoderm, each of the three tissues arises from a different subdivision of the mesoderm.

Skeletal muscle tissue arises from somatic mesoderm (parietal leaflet), cardiac muscle tissue arises from splanchnopleuric mesoderm (visceral leaflet), smooth muscle arises from splanchnopleuric some parts of somatic mesoderm.

Skeletal Striated Muscle Tissue (Skeletal Muscle)

It receives its name due to the streaks seen under the light microscope, which are derived from Myofibrils and are the primary muscle part of the Skeletal Muscle system, responsible for locomotion and limb movement. They are fabrics of voluntary control.

Muscle tissue cells have a very elongated cylindrical shape and bundles, reaching up to 40 cm in width and 10 to 100 µm in diameter in a single pile; they are multinucleated and contain, inside, numerous myofibrils, which are muscle fibers arranged in small longitudinal cylinders.

The nuclei of the cells are arranged on the periphery, and although in the microscopic view, some may appear to be in the middle of the cell this is nothing more than a cut artifact, where a sarcolemma was cut that was arranged differently on the lamina. The large presence of mitochondria is due to the fact that this tissue needs a lot of energy to perform its contractile activities.

There is also an organelle that deserves special attention, which is the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which stores and regulates the flow of Ca²; this organelle is actually an extension of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum that forms cisternae surrounding the myofibrils.

Connective Tissue Wrap

Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a sheath of dense connective tissue, which forms the structure known as the endomysium. In the basal lamina of the endomysium there are small, unnucleated, fibrocyte-like cells known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are source cells for new muscle fibers in case of muscle damage.

The endomysium are grouped in sets delimited by connective tissue, this group is called the perimysium and this group also contains vessels, nerves, collagen and fibroblasts. The set of perimysium forms the muscle itself, which is surrounded by another layer of connective tissue, which we call epimysium.

The function of the connective tissue that surrounds the muscle fibers is: to unite the common muscle fibers of a specific type of muscle, differentiating it from another muscle in the region, allowing the force of contraction.
A single beam can act on every muscle, supporting the muscle fibers because it is in the connective tissue that an extensive network of blood capillaries, nerves and lymphatic vessels is immersed and this helps in the gradual transition of some muscles to tendon.

Organization of Muscle Fibers

The myofibrils of muscle fibers can be seen under an optical microscope, however, their details can only be seen at the level of electron microscopy.

Myofibrils are composed of Bands (I, A and H) and lines (Z), the region between two Z lines is called Sarcomere. The I band is lighter because it is formed by thin filaments (Actin, Troponin and Tropomyosin), the A band is darker because it is formed by thick filaments (Myosin) and the H band is intermediate because it is formed by thin and thick filaments.

Muscle Tissue Types

Myofibrils are composed of four types of proteins: myosin, Actin, troponin and Tropomyosin. These four proteins are arranged in two filaments: the thin (Actin, troponin and Tropomyosin) and the thick (Myosin).

In the thin filament we have Actin, which is a long structure (5nm), formed by two filaments, twisted in the shape of a helix, of actin polymers (F or fibrous Actin). Actin polymers are made up of around 200 small actin monomers (G or globular Actin).

Tropomyosin is a long, thin protein, made up of two polypeptide chains that wind onto F-actin filaments. Troponin is a complex divided into three parts (TnT, TnC and TnI), each with a specific function. The TnT portion binds to Tropomyosin, the TnC portion binds to Ca² F ions and the Tnl portion enables the interaction between F actin and myosin to trigger muscle contraction.

In the thick filament, it receives this name because the myosin molecule is very thick (10 nm in diameter by 1.5 µm in length) and with a molecular mass equivalent to 500 kDa. Myosin is divided into two filaments, the heavy filament (Meromyosin heavy) produces globular regions that interact with myosin, in this segment there is a site where the energy molecule ATP is broken down into ADP by the ATPase enzyme; and the light filament (Light Meromyosin), consisting of two chains of fibers twisted into a helix. These segments were defined because they appear after being cleaved by the trypsin enzyme.

Innervation

Skeletal muscle is highly vascularized by motor (efferent) nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which originate from the spinal cord. Each nerve fiber can innervate from one to more than 150 muscle fibers, a process known as endplate.

Motor nerves reach the perimysium where they branch into portions devoid of myelin sheath. These small branches enter the surface of the muscle fiber at a structure called the myoneural junction or motor plate.

When the impulse from the motor nerve arrives at the myoneural junction, the presynaptic vesicles are stimulated to release acetylcholine (Ach) at the myoneural junction. Ach binds to postsynaptic receptors in the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber, making it more permeable to Na, which depolarizes the cell. Depolarization propagates not only through the fiber membrane, but also inside it, thanks to the invaginations that the sarcolemma makes in the cells, transverse or T tubules, reaching deep regions and making intimate interactions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the so-called triads. Thus, the sarcolemma, which is depolarizing, manages to penetrate and take the depolarization to the interior of the fibers.

In the myoneural cleft and basement membrane there is an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase that hydrolyzes excess Ach from the cleft and removes those Ach that have bound to sarcolemma receptors, this prevents the sarcolemma from being depolarized for a long period of time.

Muscle Tissue Function

The intensity of muscle contraction is not dependent on which nerve sends its impulse, as the nerve always sends the same impulse to the muscle, regardless of whether it generates a strong or weak muscle contraction. The muscle fiber also does not have the ability to contract with greater or lesser intensity, because the intensity of its contraction is always the same. What really modulates the force of muscle contraction is the amount of muscle fibers that are stimulated, so the total contraction of the muscle will be less if fewer fibers are stimulated to contract or greater if more fibers are stimulated to contract.

In addition to the efferent fibers, the muscle also has afferent, that is, sensory, nerve activity. Amid the muscle fibers there are modified muscle fibers called intrafusal fibers, these modified fibers contain receptors (proprioceptors) that capture information from muscle fibers and pass on to sensory nerve fibers that transmit the spinal cord. The main function of the efferent fibers is to control body posture and coordinate muscles whose contraction is opposed.

What are the Functions of Muscular Tissues?

During muscle fiber rest, the energy molecule ATP binds to ATPase, present in the heavy portion of myosin (Head). However, myosin ATPase cannot break ATP (Dephosphorylate) by itself, requiring Actin to serve as an enzymatic cofactor for myosin ATPase.

When the motor nerve fiber releases Ach into the myoneural cleft, it causes a process of membrane depolarization that extends into the muscle fiber thanks to the T tubules and this potential reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum due to the presence of the triads. The sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane is stimulated to depolarize and this opens Ca2 channels, passively releasing the ion into the sarcoplasm.

The free Ca² in the sarcoplasm binds to the TnC portion of Troponin, which pushes the tropomyosin filament into the thin filament (Actin plus Troponin plus Tropomyosin), by doing this Actin is exposed and interacts with the myosin filament, Myosin- ATP. Now that Actin is interacting with myosin, the myosin ATPase enzyme already has its co-factor to break the molecule down.

The ATPase enzyme breaks down the energy molecule of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) plus Pi (Inorganic Phosphate). This breakdown, called dephosphorylation, releases a large amount of energy that was stored in the ATP molecule.

The high energy that the ATP molecule generates when dephosphorylating causes the myosin head to deform and as the actin filament is interacting with the myosin head, this actin filament is pushed which causes the Actin to slide over the myosin.

When the actin filament slides over the myosin, it decreases the size of the muscle fiber and increases its thickness, causing the fiber to contract.

When displacing Actin, the myosin head detaches from the actin filament and returns to its original shape, however, new actin-myosin ligaments are made when the actin filament slides over the myosin filament in such a way that with each contraction the ligaments that generated that contraction are undone and new ligaments with other myosin heads are made to guarantee the next contraction and so susceptibly.

When the cell finishes its depolarization, Ca² returns to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in an active way, which interrupts the contractile activity due to the fact that the TnC portion of Troponin no longer has Ca² to provoke its characteristic reaction that leads to muscle fiber contraction. This cycle of contraction and relaxation is known as excitation-contraction coupling.

Types of Fiber

Skeletal muscle tissue has two types of fibers: Red Fibers (Type I), White Fibers (Type II). The difference between the three is in the amount of myoglobin they have. Myoglobin is a hemoprotein, which can store oxygen, being very necessary in muscles that have high activity requiring high oxygen consumption. Myoglobin, when bound to oxygen, has a dark red color, which gives the characteristic color of most muscles.

Red Fibers or Type I, are rich in myoglobin in their sarcoplasm, this guarantees them a slow, oxidative contraction and continues using glucose and fatty acids as a source of energy and performing. They are smaller fibers with numerous mitochondria, which guarantees a good aerobic energy performance.

The White Fibers of Type II are low in myoglobin, tense their color more light red, this guarantees a fast, oxidative and discontinuous contraction. Due to the small number of myoglobin, little oxygen is stored and this gas is thrown directly into the mitochondria. Type II fibers are divided into two subclasses: IIa, which are fast and resistant to fatigue and IIb, which are fast but accumulate lactic acid very quickly which causes fatigue and muscle soreness. Some authors consider that IIb muscle fibers are a third type of fiber, called mixed or intermediate fiber.

Muscles may have a preference for the type of fibers with some muscles composed more of white fibers and others more of red fibers depending on the function and energy requirement.

Cardiac Striated Muscle Tissue (Cardiac Muscle)

The heart is a predominantly muscular organ as it is the contractile activity of the heart muscle that gives the heart its function as the body’s blood pump. Cardiac muscle fibers are similar to skeletal muscle fibers, however, some particularities of cardiac muscle make it a muscle tissue of its own.

Cardiac muscle has striations, similar to skeletal muscle, but not as well highlighted as in skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle is involuntary, being controlled by the parasympathetic and sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system. Shorter (90 µm and length) and branched, in such a way that one fiber makes projections to the others and the fibers can project longitudinally, transversely and obliquely in the same lamina.

The core of cardiac muscle fibers is at the center of the fiber and, unlike skeletal muscle fibers which are multinucleated, these fibers usually have only one or two nuclei.

Cardiac muscle fibers also have a much greater amount of mitochondria in their cytoplasm than do skeletal muscle fibers.

The sarcoplasmic reticulum is connected with the tubules of the transverse cisternae (T tubules) in a less intense way than in the skeletal muscle fibers in such a way that in addition to the triads there is the presence of dyads.

A peculiar feature of cardiac muscle fibers is the marked presence of lipofuscin, a golden brown pigment made up of phospholipids and proteins located close to the cell nucleus. Lipofuscin is usually present in cells that do not multiply and have a long life, such as cardiac muscle fibers.

Cardiac myocytes do not have the ability to regenerate, if there is any damage to cardiac muscle tissue, fibroblasts will proliferate in the injured space and fill it with collagen fibers, forming a kind of scar.

Interleaved Disks

The intercalated or intercalated discs is a very characteristic structure of cardiac muscle fibers. Under the light microscope, it appears as strongly stained transverse lines that appear at irregular intervals along the edges.

The great opacity of intercalated discs is due to the presence of junctional complexes (adhesion zonules, gap junctions and desmosomes) between cardiac muscle fibers. The adhesion zonules, unlike the epithelium, are irregularly arranged. Desmosomes act both in the adhesion zonule and in the regions where there are gap junctions and their importance is to prevent cardiac cells from becoming disarranged during contractile activity. Gap-like gap junctions are essential for the proper contractile functioning of the heart because it is through these gap junctions that ions pass that cause one cell to excite the other in such a way that the action potential generated in only one point in the heart (Brand Cells) -step), can propagate to all heart cells, as in a syncytial form.

Secretory Function

Cardiac muscle fibers, mainly the cells of the left atrium, synthesize an atrial peptide called: Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) that are stored in the form of granules and released into the blood, acting as an important hormone regulating plasma volume.

PNA increases the secretion of Na by the renal tubules, which causes water to also be secreted following the osmotic gradient, which reduces the plasma volume of the blood, which controls blood volume and blood pressure.

Other Cardiac Structures

Some muscular structures of the heart were modified and formed cells with specific functions to the heart.

Pacemaker cells are an example of modified muscle cells and their function is to generate, by themselves, an action potential that is conducted throughout the heart by contracting muscle fibers.

Another modified muscle cells present in the heart are the Purkinje fibers which are specialized to conduct the action potential generated in the atria to the ventricles.

Contraction

Smooth muscle cells, upon receiving neurotransmitters from the autonomic nervous system, allow the entry of Ca² from the caveolae into the sarcoplasm. In the sarcoplasm, Ca² binds to calmodulin, forming the calmodulin-Ca² complex. phosphorylation of myosin II molecules. When myosin II molecules are phosphorylated, they stretch on the actin filament. Under the action of the myosin II ATPase enzyme, ATP is broken down and releases energy to move the myosin head over Actin and slide, a process similar to the contraction of skeletal muscle.

Like actin myofilaments, myosin II are linked to a network of structures called dense bodies, which are round, amorphous regions scattered throughout the cytoplasm of the muscle cell. When one cell contracts, the others are also stimulated to contract as they are pulled by these dense bodies. How to tighten the end of a shoelace and the entire shoelace twitches. During contraction, the cell nucleus passively deforms, taking on a rough, curled or helical appearance.

Hormones that can act on smooth muscle can have an effect on the sarcoplasmic concentration of cyclic AMP that leads to the activation of the kinase enzyme independent of the entry of Ca² into the cell. Hormones can increase or decrease the sarcoplasmic concentration of cyclic AMP, consequently leading to an increase or decrease in contraction.

 

 

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Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argireline)

Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argireline)Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argireline) – Peptides are endogenous protein building blocks that give our cells the signal to regenerate the skin, but also fulfill other functions in the human body.

Peptides are characterized by the linking of 2 or more amino acids, which are usually present as linear, occasionally also ring-shaped chain molecules. Amino acids are linked by a so-called peptide bond, i.e. via the carboxyl group of one amino acid with the α-amino group of the other amino acid with elimination of water. The number of amino acids that can exist as a peptide is in the thousands (there is no sharp delimitation of peptide nomenclature, in general oligopeptides = 2-9, polypeptides = 10-100 and macro peptides have over 100 amino acids)

Peptides for Anti-Aging

For example, they have antibacterial, antibiotic or anti-inflammatory effects. Other peptides appear in the form of hormones: oxytocin and insulin are particularly well known in this context. Peptides can also act as venoms or are components of venoms such as bee venom and snake venom. Flavor peptides such as sweet peptides (aspartame) or bitter peptides are also important. In cosmetics, peptides are considered a silver bullet against wrinkles and other signs of skin aging because they serve as a kind of signal transmitter and cause our body to stimulate and improve certain physiological functions such as cell vitality, cell growth and skin renewal. Several clinical studies have since confirmed the effectiveness of the substances.

Peptides: Good for Skin and Hair

The fact that peptides not only serve medical purposes, but also have a highly efficient cosmetic effect, was discovered more or less by accident during various studies on wound healing. From the enormous range of peptides, some substances stand out particularly clearly. On the one hand there is Argireline (INCI designation: Acetyl-Hexapeptide 3). It is said to have a Botox-like effect because they are said to be able to inhibit the contraction of the facial muscles. However, these peptides are not injected under the skin like Botox, but applied to the skin as ingredients in creams. Nevertheless, scientists found that the depth of wrinkles can be reduced by up to 30 percent.

What does Acetyl Hexapeptide do for Skin?

The peptides palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 also lead to a reduction in wrinkle depth and wrinkle width. The same applies to the peptides with the difficult name Dipeptide Diaminobutyroyl Benzylamide Diacetate, which, however, are also able to make the skin supple and soft. Glutathione, a tripeptide that also belongs to the peptide group, is used in skin care as an effective radical scavenger. The substance is involved in redox processes in the body. The so-called hexapeptides also alleviate stubborn expression lines. Basically, the most important peptides help to stimulate collagen production in the skin and promote skin elasticity. Some substances also have powerful anti-inflammatory properties.

Peptide Benefits

But that wasn’t all the advantages. Peptides are also considered to be very well tolerated and are suitable for all skin types. The use of peptide-containing preparations does not affect the natural skin barrier, but actually strengthens it. Those who regularly use appropriate cosmetic products usually look much younger and fresher after a while.

Peptides in Cosmetics

Cosmetic products such as anti-aging creams that contain peptides are primarily aimed at mature skin from around 35 to 40 years of age. If they are high-quality preparations, they are very effective, but only temporarily. This means that after stopping, the skin returns to its original condition after a certain period of time. Regular and continuous use is therefore expressly recommended. But this is already the only disadvantage that peptide-containing cosmetics have.

In addition, peptides can even stimulate hair growth. However, this only applies to certain substances: The peptides contained in the thymus gland are able to neutralize or normalize disorders in the hair follicle. Special preparations containing thymus peptides support the formation of new hair cells and prolong the growth phase of the hair. What’s more, these peptides can revitalize hair growth on bald spots that are not older than three years. Again, several clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness.

Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 Benefits

Scientifically speaking, peptides are sections or fragments of proteins. They differ from the classic proteins only in the number of amino acids they contain. The more amino acids the molecule contains, the higher the probability that these are no longer peptides but proteins.

In order to be used in cosmetic products, peptides have to be produced artificially. If necessary, they can even be changed in terms of their chemical composition. In the world of cosmetics, peptides are still relatively new. Long-term studies are not yet available, but it has been proven that the highly effective substances actually act like a kind of fountain of youth. Ideally, peptides are combined with other valuable ingredients in cosmetics. Together with vitamins such as A, C, E or pro-vitamin B5, they stimulate the naturally slow regeneration of mature skin. Here are some examples of how peptides are used in cosmetics:

Peptides Improve Collagen Synthesis e.g. Palmitoyl Pentapeptide

  • Peptides with an effect on the neuromuscular synapses of mimic wrinkles, Botox-like effect, a well-known representative is the acetyl hexapeptide (Argireline)
  • Research Peptides with hormonal effects = cytokines and growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF). They are signaling molecules that control many biological processes
  • Non-specific oligopeptides such as soy oligopeptides and hydrolyzed milk proteins. These oligopeptides are broken down in the skin and the resulting free amino acids support various skin functions
  • You can also read about aquaporins more and more frequently. They are proteins that allow water to pass through cell membranes, allowing for moisturization in the deeper layers of the skin.

Conclusion: Peptides in Cosmetics

Cosmetic products with peptides are currently flooding the market. However, this is by no means a passing trend or fad, but highly efficient substances that offer excellent tolerability. With regular use, high-quality and, if possible, certified preparations with peptides ensure that skin and hair remain healthy and age-related symptoms are alleviated or prevented. It can be assumed that research will be able to show further successes in researching peptides in the future. In principle, the use of peptides in skin and hair care can therefore also be rated as clearly positive, especially since no undesirable side effects have been detected to date.

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Anti-Aging Peptides

Anti-Aging PeptidesCosmetics are constantly evolving, so new and better ways of caring for the skin to prevent aging continually appear. Fresh ingredients or new formulations make creams the best anti-aging allies. One of the most frequently repeated fashion components lately is peptides. In particular Anti-Aging Peptides as we know all this usually sounds like a Martian! We have spoken with Gema Cabañero, director of the anti-aging and advanced aesthetics clinic that bears her name so that she can clarify everything there is to know about the latest star ingredient. What is it for, who can use it, and how are some of the keys you will find here? So let’s get to the point because time is running out, and our skin notices it!

Peptides: What are they?

Peptides and molecules are formed by the union of two or more amino acids. They have become an almost mandatory ingredient in anti-aging cosmetics since they cover a wide range of positive effects on the skin. Several types depend on the amino acids that make them up, so their field of action is so vast.

Peptides and molecules are formed by the union of two or more amino acids. They have become an almost mandatory ingredient in anti-aging cosmetics since they cover a wide range of positive effects on the skin. Several types depend on the amino acids that make them up, so their field of action is so vast. The most widely used in cosmetics are oligopeptides, which contain less than ten amino acids. The pentapeptides and tetrapeptides stand out for delicate areas such as the eye bags or the contour. These help stimulate collagen synthesis, preventing its loss and achieving a firming effect.

Anti-wrinkle and anti-aging creams tripeptides are in the formula, especially to deeply hydrate the skin and its high healing power. Hexapeptides are also well known for their effectiveness against wrinkles since they perform a kind of Botox effect by bringing a state of relaxation to the muscles.

Where to Find Peptides?

The most common and effective way to apply this component is through cosmetics with a cream or serum texture since its concentration will be higher in this type of product than, for example, in cleansers. In this way, they will achieve a better impact on all levels of the skin.

Best Peptides for Skin

The most widely used in cosmetics are oligopeptides, which contain less than ten amino acids. The pentapeptides and tetrapeptides stand out for delicate areas such as the eye bags or the contour. These help stimulate collagen synthesis, preventing its loss and achieving a firming effect. Anti-wrinkle and anti-aging creams tripeptides are in the formula, especially to deeply hydrate the skin and its high healing power. Hexapeptides are also well known for their effectiveness against wrinkles since they perform a kind of Botox effect by bringing a state of relaxation to the muscles.

What is Anti Wrinkle Peptide?

The most common and effective way to apply this component is through cosmetics with a cream or serum. The textures concentration will be higher in this type of product than, for example, in cleansers. In this way, they will achieve a better impact on all levels of the skin.

Can everyone use them throughout the year?

Another benefit of peptides is that they have no contraindications and can be used on all skin types, especially those that want to slow down aging. There is no contraindication on when to use them since they are not reactive to sunlight.

Do Peptides Serve to Treat a Specific Problem?

The application of cosmetic formulas with peptides is for all skin types that want to stop the process of premature aging. In addition, they are highly recommended when treating wrinkles and sagging skin. They help maintain the results of aesthetic medical treatments because you can use them in specific areas where Botox and hyaluronic acid is for tension threads.

What is the Best Age to Start Using Anti-Aging Product ?

Although they do not have any adverse effects, using them at an early age, is from the age of 25 when it is convenient to start using them. It is the age at which collagen synthesis begins to reduce, and the aging process accelerates.

Now that you know everything about the star anti-aging ingredient choose your cream or serum with peptides.

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Gut Inflammation Research – Inflammatory bowel diseases

Gut Inflammation ResearchGut Inflammation Research: Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are on the rise, particularly in Europe, so an EU-funded project got to the bottom of the immune responses that cause these diseases. Swedish researchers have already made significant progress in research into the causes of painful intestinal inflammation such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

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Chronic Inflammation and Gut Health

The research from the EU project MIRA is timely. Based on a global scale, the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is highest in Europe (for reasons that are still unclear). But, according to a study published in The Lancet, most ulcerative colitis-associated with rectal bleeding cases are recorded in Norway (505 patients per 100 000 population), and Germany has the highest prevalence of Crohn’s disease (322 patients per 100 000 population).

Gut Inflammation Research

The MIRA project, was funded by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie program. It investigated how specific T cells induce an immune response and become immunologically active. It reveals the reason why the immune system of some people cannot distinguish between harmless and pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Plus, why inflammatory processes are rising.

“We showed that normal flora (commensal) T cells are activated in lymph nodes that drain lymph from the inflamed gut. And the function of these cells can change as soon as they migrate into inflamed tissue,” explains researcher Chiara Sorini.

Her work was supervised by Eduardo Villablanca, Associate Professor and Wallenberg Academy Medical Fellow at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, whose laboratory researches IBD.

The study also identified dendritic cells, which act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are vital players in inducing a T-cell response. Also discovered that these responses can be reprogrammed (via an as yet unclear mechanism).

Environmental Factor

“The ability of commensal-specific T cells to adapt their function to changing environmental conditions is certainly one of the most exciting results of the project,” says Sorini.

And as soon as the causes and processes of this functional change are clarified more precisely, she is convinced that she could quickly find cures for intestinal inflammation.

In the MIRA study, modified T cells recognizing IBD-typical immunodominant microbial antigens were injected into mouse models. The researchers then used different experimental models of chemically induced inflammation to observe how these antigens behaved as they traveled through various tissues.

What Helps Inflammation of the Gut?

The activation of T cells and their migration into the intestine was investigated in lymph nodes that regulate the lymphatic drainage in the intestine. In addition, their function was determined at different times of the onset and resolution of the inflammation.

Based on these experiments, Sorini and Villablanca assume that T cells are primarily motivated by their specific environment to regard harmless bacteria as infectious pathogens.

IBD is a very complex disease involving many genetic and environmental factors,” explains Villablanca. “In general, we can trace the first imprinting of commensal-specific T cells. Then subsequent inflammatory process in the intestine can be traced back to an already existing disruption in the barrier function of the mucous membrane in the intestine.”

The causes of such an imbalance in the mucosal barrier in the intestine still need to be examined. MIRA researchers believe their work has contributed to the fight against diseases. These affected 6.8 million people in 2017, as per the article. The global, regional, and national burden of inflammatory bowel disease in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017. A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 in The Lancet.

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Semaglutide: An Advance in the Treatment of Obesity

Semaglutide (GLP-1) 3mgObesity is one of the leading public health problems in the 21st century. It has a clear association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, leading to a reduction in life expectancy. Despite its importance, there have been few therapeutic advances in the management of obesity in recent years.

What is it Semaglutide?

Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog approved for the treatment of DM2. In addition to having a powerful hypoglycemic effect, it can reduce CV events in patients with DM2 with high CVR.

Is Semaglutide Good for Weight Loss?

Semaglutide also has another series of beneficial effect, including weight loss. Weight loss with Semaglutide in the SUSTAIN research program in DM2 reached up to 7 kg in the studies with the most extended follow-up with the 1 mg/week dose. Still, phase II studies conducted on obese subjects showed greater potency in weight reduction with good clinical tolerance using higher doses.

The STEP 1 study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted at 121 centers in 16 countries. It included 1961 subjects with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 or BMI ≥ 27) with some associated risk factors but without DM2.

Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive Semaglutide 2.4 mg/week or placebo and healthy diet and exercise recommendations in both groups. The study’s primary endpoints were the percent change in body weight at 68 weeks and the percentage of subjects who reduced their body weight by at least 5%. Novo Nordisk funded the study.

The mean age of the included patients was 46 years, and 76% were women. The mean baseline BMI was 37.9, and 44% of the patients had prediabetes. Percentage weight loss was −14.9% with Semaglutide vs −2.4% with placebo (difference −12.4%; p < 0.001). More Semaglutide-treated patients lost at least 5% of their body weight (86.4% vs. 31.5%; p < 0.001), noting that half of Semaglutide-treated patients achieved a 15% or more weight loss at 68 weeks, versus only 5% with placebo (p < 0.001).

Secondarily, other benefits note that Semaglutide reduces blood pressure, basal blood glucose, lipid profile, or improvement in physical fitness.

Who Should not take Semaglutide?

In an exploratory analysis Semaglutide treatment was safe, although gastrointestinal adverse events (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) were more frequent with Semaglutide (74% vs. 48%). These adverse events were mild or moderate in intensity in most patients. There were 3 cases of acute pancreatitis with semaglutide (0.2%), mild intensity, and a higher incidence of cholelithiasis (1.8% vs. 0.6%).

The authors concluded that in overweight or obese adults without DM2, weekly subcutaneous Semaglutide treatment and lifestyle intervention were associated with sustained and clinically relevant weight loss (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03548935). “In adults with obesity or overweight but without DM2, weekly treatment with subcutaneous Semaglutide. Plus intervention in lifestyle habits was associated with sustained and clinically relevant weight loss over time.”

What does Semaglutide do to your Body?

Obesity is a significant public health problem. Although the ideal treatment is prevention, few pharmacological treatments have demonstrated efficacy and safety once established. Semaglutide is a hypoglycemic drug with known efficacy for metabolic control and reducing CV events in patients with DM2. It is probably the most effective GLP-1 analog for weight loss. Its weekly administration also made it an exciting option for treating obesity, as seen in STEP 1.

Semaglutide Weight loss Reviews

Weight reduction was observed early at four weeks, reaching a nadir at 60 weeks of follow-up, and sustains over time. The results were very positive, showing a powerful effect on weight loss. The change in body weight at 68 weeks with semaglutide was −15.3 kg.

In the study, only a minority of the patients included had a history of CV disease (2%), so its applicability to patients with established CV disease is unknown. A phase III clinical trial is currently evaluating the efficacy of Semaglutide 2.4 mg/week versus placebo in reducing major cardiovascular events in patients with BMI ≥ 27 and established CV disease but without DM2 (NCT03574597).

Another clinical trial, for example, is assessing the efficacy of this drug in the treatment of heart failure with preserved systolic function. GLP-1 analogs have additional positive effects on weight loss, both at a metabolic and cardiovascular level, improving the lipid profile, lowering blood pressure.

The dose used was higher than the dose approved for its indication in DM2. It is important to remember that the starting dose was 0.25 mg per week. There was a gradual increase (0.5-1-1.7 mg) every four weeks until the target dose was complete. Suppose the drug achieves the indication for the treatment of obesity. In that case, it is essential to maintain this titration scheme in clinical practice.

Semaglutide Cost

Although the drug was safe, 75% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, with nausea being the most common side effect even with this careful titration. However, we should note that only 7% led to drug discontinuation. The high cost of the drug may be a limitation for its widespread use in clinical practice with this indication.