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Muscle Tissue

Muscle TissueIntroduction Muscle Tissue

Muscle tissue is part of the four primary tissues of the body, and its functions are: to assist in locomotion and movement of the limbs (musculoskeletal system), motility of some organs (smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract), control of the secretion of some glands (Smooth muscle ), chewing (masseter and temporalis muscle, for example), contractile activity (heart) and feeding (most of the meat is muscle tissue).

Muscle tissue divides into three major groups: Skeletal Muscle Tissue (the large majority of muscles), Cardiac Muscle Tissue (heart muscle) and Smooth Muscle (a muscle that surrounds some organs and tissues). Muscles are different in the size and number of muscle fibers, organization of contractile elements, and type of innervation.

Muscle Tissue Types

Even with its differences, muscle tissue has some characteristics that are common to all types, such as common embryonic origin, large amount of mitochondria, to supply its high energy requirement; contact elements, derived from filamentous proteins mainly actin and myosin.

Another characteristic of this tissue is its high vascularization, which is necessary to maintain a good amount of energetic substrates (Glucose and lipids, for example) and oxygen, which is essential for an adequate aerobic muscle contraction. In the absence of good oxygenation for the muscle, intense exercise, for example, starts to contract in an anaerobic way, generating lactic acid that is aggressive to the muscle fibers, fatigue, and causing pain.

Muscle tissue also has a high innervation, especially skeletal muscle tissue, as in this case, each muscle fiber has its innervation.

Muscle cells have characteristic names such as Sarcolemma (Plasmalemma), is the plasma membrane of muscle cells, although it can also be used to designate the basal lamina and reticular fibers; Sarcoplasm, used to designate the cytoplasm; Sarcosomes, used to designate the mitochondria; sarcoplasmic reticulum, used to designate the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (REL) of skeletal and cardiac muscles, as their REL are an essential reservoir of Ca² for the contraction of these cells.

Embryonic Origin

Although the three types of musculature originate in the embryonic layer of the mesoderm, each of the three tissues arises from a different subdivision of the mesoderm.

Skeletal muscle tissue arises from somatic mesoderm (parietal leaflet), cardiac muscle tissue arises from splanchnopleuric mesoderm (visceral leaflet), smooth muscle arises from splanchnopleuric some parts of somatic mesoderm.

Skeletal Striated Muscle Tissue (Skeletal Muscle)

It receives its name due to the streaks seen under the light microscope, which are derived from Myofibrils and are the primary muscle part of the Skeletal Muscle system, responsible for locomotion and limb movement. They are fabrics of voluntary control.

Muscle tissue cells have a very elongated cylindrical shape and bundles, reaching up to 40 cm in width and 10 to 100 µm in diameter in a single pile; they are multinucleated and contain, inside, numerous myofibrils, which are muscle fibers arranged in small longitudinal cylinders.

The nuclei of the cells are arranged on the periphery, and although in the microscopic view, some may appear to be in the middle of the cell this is nothing more than a cut artifact, where a sarcolemma was cut that was arranged differently on the lamina. The large presence of mitochondria is due to the fact that this tissue needs a lot of energy to perform its contractile activities.

There is also an organelle that deserves special attention, which is the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which stores and regulates the flow of Ca²; this organelle is actually an extension of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum that forms cisternae surrounding the myofibrils.

Connective Tissue Wrap

Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a sheath of dense connective tissue, which forms the structure known as the endomysium. In the basal lamina of the endomysium there are small, unnucleated, fibrocyte-like cells known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are source cells for new muscle fibers in case of muscle damage.

The endomysium are grouped in sets delimited by connective tissue, this group is called the perimysium and this group also contains vessels, nerves, collagen and fibroblasts. The set of perimysium forms the muscle itself, which is surrounded by another layer of connective tissue, which we call epimysium.

The function of the connective tissue that surrounds the muscle fibers is: to unite the common muscle fibers of a specific type of muscle, differentiating it from another muscle in the region, allowing the force of contraction.
A single beam can act on every muscle, supporting the muscle fibers because it is in the connective tissue that an extensive network of blood capillaries, nerves and lymphatic vessels is immersed and this helps in the gradual transition of some muscles to tendon.

Organization of Muscle Fibers

The myofibrils of muscle fibers can be seen under an optical microscope, however, their details can only be seen at the level of electron microscopy.

Myofibrils are composed of Bands (I, A and H) and lines (Z), the region between two Z lines is called Sarcomere. The I band is lighter because it is formed by thin filaments (Actin, Troponin and Tropomyosin), the A band is darker because it is formed by thick filaments (Myosin) and the H band is intermediate because it is formed by thin and thick filaments.

Muscle Tissue Types

Myofibrils are composed of four types of proteins: myosin, Actin, troponin and Tropomyosin. These four proteins are arranged in two filaments: the thin (Actin, troponin and Tropomyosin) and the thick (Myosin).

In the thin filament we have Actin, which is a long structure (5nm), formed by two filaments, twisted in the shape of a helix, of actin polymers (F or fibrous Actin). Actin polymers are made up of around 200 small actin monomers (G or globular Actin).

Tropomyosin is a long, thin protein, made up of two polypeptide chains that wind onto F-actin filaments. Troponin is a complex divided into three parts (TnT, TnC and TnI), each with a specific function. The TnT portion binds to Tropomyosin, the TnC portion binds to Ca² F ions and the Tnl portion enables the interaction between F actin and myosin to trigger muscle contraction.

In the thick filament, it receives this name because the myosin molecule is very thick (10 nm in diameter by 1.5 µm in length) and with a molecular mass equivalent to 500 kDa. Myosin is divided into two filaments, the heavy filament (Meromyosin heavy) produces globular regions that interact with myosin, in this segment there is a site where the energy molecule ATP is broken down into ADP by the ATPase enzyme; and the light filament (Light Meromyosin), consisting of two chains of fibers twisted into a helix. These segments were defined because they appear after being cleaved by the trypsin enzyme.


Skeletal muscle is highly vascularized by motor (efferent) nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which originate from the spinal cord. Each nerve fiber can innervate from one to more than 150 muscle fibers, a process known as endplate.

Motor nerves reach the perimysium where they branch into portions devoid of myelin sheath. These small branches enter the surface of the muscle fiber at a structure called the myoneural junction or motor plate.

When the impulse from the motor nerve arrives at the myoneural junction, the presynaptic vesicles are stimulated to release acetylcholine (Ach) at the myoneural junction. Ach binds to postsynaptic receptors in the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber, making it more permeable to Na, which depolarizes the cell. Depolarization propagates not only through the fiber membrane, but also inside it, thanks to the invaginations that the sarcolemma makes in the cells, transverse or T tubules, reaching deep regions and making intimate interactions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the so-called triads. Thus, the sarcolemma, which is depolarizing, manages to penetrate and take the depolarization to the interior of the fibers.

In the myoneural cleft and basement membrane there is an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase that hydrolyzes excess Ach from the cleft and removes those Ach that have bound to sarcolemma receptors, this prevents the sarcolemma from being depolarized for a long period of time.

Muscle Tissue Function

The intensity of muscle contraction is not dependent on which nerve sends its impulse, as the nerve always sends the same impulse to the muscle, regardless of whether it generates a strong or weak muscle contraction. The muscle fiber also does not have the ability to contract with greater or lesser intensity, because the intensity of its contraction is always the same. What really modulates the force of muscle contraction is the amount of muscle fibers that are stimulated, so the total contraction of the muscle will be less if fewer fibers are stimulated to contract or greater if more fibers are stimulated to contract.

In addition to the efferent fibers, the muscle also has afferent, that is, sensory, nerve activity. Amid the muscle fibers there are modified muscle fibers called intrafusal fibers, these modified fibers contain receptors (proprioceptors) that capture information from muscle fibers and pass on to sensory nerve fibers that transmit the spinal cord. The main function of the efferent fibers is to control body posture and coordinate muscles whose contraction is opposed.

What are the Functions of Muscular Tissues?

During muscle fiber rest, the energy molecule ATP binds to ATPase, present in the heavy portion of myosin (Head). However, myosin ATPase cannot break ATP (Dephosphorylate) by itself, requiring Actin to serve as an enzymatic cofactor for myosin ATPase.

When the motor nerve fiber releases Ach into the myoneural cleft, it causes a process of membrane depolarization that extends into the muscle fiber thanks to the T tubules and this potential reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum due to the presence of the triads. The sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane is stimulated to depolarize and this opens Ca2 channels, passively releasing the ion into the sarcoplasm.

The free Ca² in the sarcoplasm binds to the TnC portion of Troponin, which pushes the tropomyosin filament into the thin filament (Actin plus Troponin plus Tropomyosin), by doing this Actin is exposed and interacts with the myosin filament, Myosin- ATP. Now that Actin is interacting with myosin, the myosin ATPase enzyme already has its co-factor to break the molecule down.

The ATPase enzyme breaks down the energy molecule of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) plus Pi (Inorganic Phosphate). This breakdown, called dephosphorylation, releases a large amount of energy that was stored in the ATP molecule.

The high energy that the ATP molecule generates when dephosphorylating causes the myosin head to deform and as the actin filament is interacting with the myosin head, this actin filament is pushed which causes the Actin to slide over the myosin.

When the actin filament slides over the myosin, it decreases the size of the muscle fiber and increases its thickness, causing the fiber to contract.

When displacing Actin, the myosin head detaches from the actin filament and returns to its original shape, however, new actin-myosin ligaments are made when the actin filament slides over the myosin filament in such a way that with each contraction the ligaments that generated that contraction are undone and new ligaments with other myosin heads are made to guarantee the next contraction and so susceptibly.

When the cell finishes its depolarization, Ca² returns to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in an active way, which interrupts the contractile activity due to the fact that the TnC portion of Troponin no longer has Ca² to provoke its characteristic reaction that leads to muscle fiber contraction. This cycle of contraction and relaxation is known as excitation-contraction coupling.

Types of Fiber

Skeletal muscle tissue has two types of fibers: Red Fibers (Type I), White Fibers (Type II). The difference between the three is in the amount of myoglobin they have. Myoglobin is a hemoprotein, which can store oxygen, being very necessary in muscles that have high activity requiring high oxygen consumption. Myoglobin, when bound to oxygen, has a dark red color, which gives the characteristic color of most muscles.

Red Fibers or Type I, are rich in myoglobin in their sarcoplasm, this guarantees them a slow, oxidative contraction and continues using glucose and fatty acids as a source of energy and performing. They are smaller fibers with numerous mitochondria, which guarantees a good aerobic energy performance.

The White Fibers of Type II are low in myoglobin, tense their color more light red, this guarantees a fast, oxidative and discontinuous contraction. Due to the small number of myoglobin, little oxygen is stored and this gas is thrown directly into the mitochondria. Type II fibers are divided into two subclasses: IIa, which are fast and resistant to fatigue and IIb, which are fast but accumulate lactic acid very quickly which causes fatigue and muscle soreness. Some authors consider that IIb muscle fibers are a third type of fiber, called mixed or intermediate fiber.

Muscles may have a preference for the type of fibers with some muscles composed more of white fibers and others more of red fibers depending on the function and energy requirement.

Cardiac Striated Muscle Tissue (Cardiac Muscle)

The heart is a predominantly muscular organ as it is the contractile activity of the heart muscle that gives the heart its function as the body’s blood pump. Cardiac muscle fibers are similar to skeletal muscle fibers, however, some particularities of cardiac muscle make it a muscle tissue of its own.

Cardiac muscle has striations, similar to skeletal muscle, but not as well highlighted as in skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle is involuntary, being controlled by the parasympathetic and sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system. Shorter (90 µm and length) and branched, in such a way that one fiber makes projections to the others and the fibers can project longitudinally, transversely and obliquely in the same lamina.

The core of cardiac muscle fibers is at the center of the fiber and, unlike skeletal muscle fibers which are multinucleated, these fibers usually have only one or two nuclei.

Cardiac muscle fibers also have a much greater amount of mitochondria in their cytoplasm than do skeletal muscle fibers.

The sarcoplasmic reticulum is connected with the tubules of the transverse cisternae (T tubules) in a less intense way than in the skeletal muscle fibers in such a way that in addition to the triads there is the presence of dyads.

A peculiar feature of cardiac muscle fibers is the marked presence of lipofuscin, a golden brown pigment made up of phospholipids and proteins located close to the cell nucleus. Lipofuscin is usually present in cells that do not multiply and have a long life, such as cardiac muscle fibers.

Cardiac myocytes do not have the ability to regenerate, if there is any damage to cardiac muscle tissue, fibroblasts will proliferate in the injured space and fill it with collagen fibers, forming a kind of scar.

Interleaved Disks

The intercalated or intercalated discs is a very characteristic structure of cardiac muscle fibers. Under the light microscope, it appears as strongly stained transverse lines that appear at irregular intervals along the edges.

The great opacity of intercalated discs is due to the presence of junctional complexes (adhesion zonules, gap junctions and desmosomes) between cardiac muscle fibers. The adhesion zonules, unlike the epithelium, are irregularly arranged. Desmosomes act both in the adhesion zonule and in the regions where there are gap junctions and their importance is to prevent cardiac cells from becoming disarranged during contractile activity. Gap-like gap junctions are essential for the proper contractile functioning of the heart because it is through these gap junctions that ions pass that cause one cell to excite the other in such a way that the action potential generated in only one point in the heart (Brand Cells) -step), can propagate to all heart cells, as in a syncytial form.

Secretory Function

Cardiac muscle fibers, mainly the cells of the left atrium, synthesize an atrial peptide called: Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) that are stored in the form of granules and released into the blood, acting as an important hormone regulating plasma volume.

PNA increases the secretion of Na by the renal tubules, which causes water to also be secreted following the osmotic gradient, which reduces the plasma volume of the blood, which controls blood volume and blood pressure.

Other Cardiac Structures

Some muscular structures of the heart were modified and formed cells with specific functions to the heart.

Pacemaker cells are an example of modified muscle cells and their function is to generate, by themselves, an action potential that is conducted throughout the heart by contracting muscle fibers.

Another modified muscle cells present in the heart are the Purkinje fibers which are specialized to conduct the action potential generated in the atria to the ventricles.


Smooth muscle cells, upon receiving neurotransmitters from the autonomic nervous system, allow the entry of Ca² from the caveolae into the sarcoplasm. In the sarcoplasm, Ca² binds to calmodulin, forming the calmodulin-Ca² complex. phosphorylation of myosin II molecules. When myosin II molecules are phosphorylated, they stretch on the actin filament. Under the action of the myosin II ATPase enzyme, ATP is broken down and releases energy to move the myosin head over Actin and slide, a process similar to the contraction of skeletal muscle.

Like actin myofilaments, myosin II are linked to a network of structures called dense bodies, which are round, amorphous regions scattered throughout the cytoplasm of the muscle cell. When one cell contracts, the others are also stimulated to contract as they are pulled by these dense bodies. How to tighten the end of a shoelace and the entire shoelace twitches. During contraction, the cell nucleus passively deforms, taking on a rough, curled or helical appearance.

Hormones that can act on smooth muscle can have an effect on the sarcoplasmic concentration of cyclic AMP that leads to the activation of the kinase enzyme independent of the entry of Ca² into the cell. Hormones can increase or decrease the sarcoplasmic concentration of cyclic AMP, consequently leading to an increase or decrease in contraction.



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Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argireline)

Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argireline)Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 (Argireline) – Peptides are endogenous protein building blocks that give our cells the signal to regenerate the skin, but also fulfill other functions in the human body.

Peptides are characterized by the linking of 2 or more amino acids, which are usually present as linear, occasionally also ring-shaped chain molecules. Amino acids are linked by a so-called peptide bond, i.e. via the carboxyl group of one amino acid with the α-amino group of the other amino acid with elimination of water. The number of amino acids that can exist as a peptide is in the thousands (there is no sharp delimitation of peptide nomenclature, in general oligopeptides = 2-9, polypeptides = 10-100 and macro peptides have over 100 amino acids)

Peptides for Anti-Aging

For example, they have antibacterial, antibiotic or anti-inflammatory effects. Other peptides appear in the form of hormones: oxytocin and insulin are particularly well known in this context. Peptides can also act as venoms or are components of venoms such as bee venom and snake venom. Flavor peptides such as sweet peptides (aspartame) or bitter peptides are also important. In cosmetics, peptides are considered a silver bullet against wrinkles and other signs of skin aging because they serve as a kind of signal transmitter and cause our body to stimulate and improve certain physiological functions such as cell vitality, cell growth and skin renewal. Several clinical studies have since confirmed the effectiveness of the substances.

Peptides: Good for Skin and Hair

The fact that peptides not only serve medical purposes, but also have a highly efficient cosmetic effect, was discovered more or less by accident during various studies on wound healing. From the enormous range of peptides, some substances stand out particularly clearly. On the one hand there is Argireline (INCI designation: Acetyl-Hexapeptide 3). It is said to have a Botox-like effect because they are said to be able to inhibit the contraction of the facial muscles. However, these peptides are not injected under the skin like Botox, but applied to the skin as ingredients in creams. Nevertheless, scientists found that the depth of wrinkles can be reduced by up to 30 percent.

What does Acetyl Hexapeptide do for Skin?

The peptides palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 also lead to a reduction in wrinkle depth and wrinkle width. The same applies to the peptides with the difficult name Dipeptide Diaminobutyroyl Benzylamide Diacetate, which, however, are also able to make the skin supple and soft. Glutathione, a tripeptide that also belongs to the peptide group, is used in skin care as an effective radical scavenger. The substance is involved in redox processes in the body. The so-called hexapeptides also alleviate stubborn expression lines. Basically, the most important peptides help to stimulate collagen production in the skin and promote skin elasticity. Some substances also have powerful anti-inflammatory properties.

Peptide Benefits

But that wasn’t all the advantages. Peptides are also considered to be very well tolerated and are suitable for all skin types. The use of peptide-containing preparations does not affect the natural skin barrier, but actually strengthens it. Those who regularly use appropriate cosmetic products usually look much younger and fresher after a while.

Peptides in Cosmetics

Cosmetic products such as anti-aging creams that contain peptides are primarily aimed at mature skin from around 35 to 40 years of age. If they are high-quality preparations, they are very effective, but only temporarily. This means that after stopping, the skin returns to its original condition after a certain period of time. Regular and continuous use is therefore expressly recommended. But this is already the only disadvantage that peptide-containing cosmetics have.

In addition, peptides can even stimulate hair growth. However, this only applies to certain substances: The peptides contained in the thymus gland are able to neutralize or normalize disorders in the hair follicle. Special preparations containing thymus peptides support the formation of new hair cells and prolong the growth phase of the hair. What’s more, these peptides can revitalize hair growth on bald spots that are not older than three years. Again, several clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness.

Acetyl Hexapeptide-3 Benefits

Scientifically speaking, peptides are sections or fragments of proteins. They differ from the classic proteins only in the number of amino acids they contain. The more amino acids the molecule contains, the higher the probability that these are no longer peptides but proteins.

In order to be used in cosmetic products, peptides have to be produced artificially. If necessary, they can even be changed in terms of their chemical composition. In the world of cosmetics, peptides are still relatively new. Long-term studies are not yet available, but it has been proven that the highly effective substances actually act like a kind of fountain of youth. Ideally, peptides are combined with other valuable ingredients in cosmetics. Together with vitamins such as A, C, E or pro-vitamin B5, they stimulate the naturally slow regeneration of mature skin. Here are some examples of how peptides are used in cosmetics:

Peptides Improve Collagen Synthesis e.g. Palmitoyl Pentapeptide

  • Peptides with an effect on the neuromuscular synapses of mimic wrinkles, Botox-like effect, a well-known representative is the acetyl hexapeptide (Argireline)
  • Research Peptides with hormonal effects = cytokines and growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF). They are signaling molecules that control many biological processes
  • Non-specific oligopeptides such as soy oligopeptides and hydrolyzed milk proteins. These oligopeptides are broken down in the skin and the resulting free amino acids support various skin functions
  • You can also read about aquaporins more and more frequently. They are proteins that allow water to pass through cell membranes, allowing for moisturization in the deeper layers of the skin.

Conclusion: Peptides in Cosmetics

Cosmetic products with peptides are currently flooding the market. However, this is by no means a passing trend or fad, but highly efficient substances that offer excellent tolerability. With regular use, high-quality and, if possible, certified preparations with peptides ensure that skin and hair remain healthy and age-related symptoms are alleviated or prevented. It can be assumed that research will be able to show further successes in researching peptides in the future. In principle, the use of peptides in skin and hair care can therefore also be rated as clearly positive, especially since no undesirable side effects have been detected to date.

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Anti-Aging Peptides

Anti-Aging PeptidesCosmetics are constantly evolving, so new and better ways of caring for the skin to prevent aging continually appear. Fresh ingredients or new formulations make creams the best anti-aging allies. One of the most frequently repeated fashion components lately is peptides. In particular Anti-Aging Peptides as we know all this usually sounds like a Martian! We have spoken with Gema Cabañero, director of the anti-aging and advanced aesthetics clinic that bears her name so that she can clarify everything there is to know about the latest star ingredient. What is it for, who can use it, and how are some of the keys you will find here? So let’s get to the point because time is running out, and our skin notices it!

Peptides: What are they?

Peptides and molecules are formed by the union of two or more amino acids. They have become an almost mandatory ingredient in anti-aging cosmetics since they cover a wide range of positive effects on the skin. Several types depend on the amino acids that make them up, so their field of action is so vast.

Peptides and molecules are formed by the union of two or more amino acids. They have become an almost mandatory ingredient in anti-aging cosmetics since they cover a wide range of positive effects on the skin. Several types depend on the amino acids that make them up, so their field of action is so vast. The most widely used in cosmetics are oligopeptides, which contain less than ten amino acids. The pentapeptides and tetrapeptides stand out for delicate areas such as the eye bags or the contour. These help stimulate collagen synthesis, preventing its loss and achieving a firming effect.

Anti-wrinkle and anti-aging creams tripeptides are in the formula, especially to deeply hydrate the skin and its high healing power. Hexapeptides are also well known for their effectiveness against wrinkles since they perform a kind of Botox effect by bringing a state of relaxation to the muscles.

Where to Find Peptides?

The most common and effective way to apply this component is through cosmetics with a cream or serum texture since its concentration will be higher in this type of product than, for example, in cleansers. In this way, they will achieve a better impact on all levels of the skin.

Best Peptides for Skin

The most widely used in cosmetics are oligopeptides, which contain less than ten amino acids. The pentapeptides and tetrapeptides stand out for delicate areas such as the eye bags or the contour. These help stimulate collagen synthesis, preventing its loss and achieving a firming effect. Anti-wrinkle and anti-aging creams tripeptides are in the formula, especially to deeply hydrate the skin and its high healing power. Hexapeptides are also well known for their effectiveness against wrinkles since they perform a kind of Botox effect by bringing a state of relaxation to the muscles.

What is Anti Wrinkle Peptide?

The most common and effective way to apply this component is through cosmetics with a cream or serum. The textures concentration will be higher in this type of product than, for example, in cleansers. In this way, they will achieve a better impact on all levels of the skin.

Can everyone use them throughout the year?

Another benefit of peptides is that they have no contraindications and can be used on all skin types, especially those that want to slow down aging. There is no contraindication on when to use them since they are not reactive to sunlight.

Do Peptides Serve to Treat a Specific Problem?

The application of cosmetic formulas with peptides is for all skin types that want to stop the process of premature aging. In addition, they are highly recommended when treating wrinkles and sagging skin. They help maintain the results of aesthetic medical treatments because you can use them in specific areas where Botox and hyaluronic acid is for tension threads.

What is the Best Age to Start Using Anti-Aging Product ?

Although they do not have any adverse effects, using them at an early age, is from the age of 25 when it is convenient to start using them. It is the age at which collagen synthesis begins to reduce, and the aging process accelerates.

Now that you know everything about the star anti-aging ingredient choose your cream or serum with peptides.

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Gut Inflammation Research – Inflammatory bowel diseases

Gut Inflammation ResearchGut Inflammation Research: Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are on the rise, particularly in Europe, so an EU-funded project got to the bottom of the immune responses that cause these diseases. Swedish researchers have already made significant progress in research into the causes of painful intestinal inflammation such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

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Chronic Inflammation and Gut Health

The research from the EU project MIRA is timely. Based on a global scale, the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is highest in Europe (for reasons that are still unclear). But, according to a study published in The Lancet, most ulcerative colitis-associated with rectal bleeding cases are recorded in Norway (505 patients per 100 000 population), and Germany has the highest prevalence of Crohn’s disease (322 patients per 100 000 population).

Gut Inflammation Research

The MIRA project, was funded by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie program. It investigated how specific T cells induce an immune response and become immunologically active. It reveals the reason why the immune system of some people cannot distinguish between harmless and pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Plus, why inflammatory processes are rising.

“We showed that normal flora (commensal) T cells are activated in lymph nodes that drain lymph from the inflamed gut. And the function of these cells can change as soon as they migrate into inflamed tissue,” explains researcher Chiara Sorini.

Her work was supervised by Eduardo Villablanca, Associate Professor and Wallenberg Academy Medical Fellow at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, whose laboratory researches IBD.

The study also identified dendritic cells, which act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are vital players in inducing a T-cell response. Also discovered that these responses can be reprogrammed (via an as yet unclear mechanism).

Environmental Factor

“The ability of commensal-specific T cells to adapt their function to changing environmental conditions is certainly one of the most exciting results of the project,” says Sorini.

And as soon as the causes and processes of this functional change are clarified more precisely, she is convinced that she could quickly find cures for intestinal inflammation.

In the MIRA study, modified T cells recognizing IBD-typical immunodominant microbial antigens were injected into mouse models. The researchers then used different experimental models of chemically induced inflammation to observe how these antigens behaved as they traveled through various tissues.

What Helps Inflammation of the Gut?

The activation of T cells and their migration into the intestine was investigated in lymph nodes that regulate the lymphatic drainage in the intestine. In addition, their function was determined at different times of the onset and resolution of the inflammation.

Based on these experiments, Sorini and Villablanca assume that T cells are primarily motivated by their specific environment to regard harmless bacteria as infectious pathogens.

IBD is a very complex disease involving many genetic and environmental factors,” explains Villablanca. “In general, we can trace the first imprinting of commensal-specific T cells. Then subsequent inflammatory process in the intestine can be traced back to an already existing disruption in the barrier function of the mucous membrane in the intestine.”

The causes of such an imbalance in the mucosal barrier in the intestine still need to be examined. MIRA researchers believe their work has contributed to the fight against diseases. These affected 6.8 million people in 2017, as per the article. The global, regional, and national burden of inflammatory bowel disease in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017. A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 in The Lancet.

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Semaglutide: An Advance in the Treatment of Obesity

Semaglutide (GLP-1) 3mgObesity is one of the leading public health problems in the 21st century. It has a clear association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, leading to a reduction in life expectancy. Despite its importance, there have been few therapeutic advances in the management of obesity in recent years.

What is it Semaglutide?

Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog approved for the treatment of DM2. In addition to having a powerful hypoglycemic effect, it can reduce CV events in patients with DM2 with high CVR.

Is Semaglutide Good for Weight Loss?

Semaglutide also has another series of beneficial effect, including weight loss. Weight loss with Semaglutide in the SUSTAIN research program in DM2 reached up to 7 kg in the studies with the most extended follow-up with the 1 mg/week dose. Still, phase II studies conducted on obese subjects showed greater potency in weight reduction with good clinical tolerance using higher doses.

The STEP 1 study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted at 121 centers in 16 countries. It included 1961 subjects with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 or BMI ≥ 27) with some associated risk factors but without DM2.

Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive Semaglutide 2.4 mg/week or placebo and healthy diet and exercise recommendations in both groups. The study’s primary endpoints were the percent change in body weight at 68 weeks and the percentage of subjects who reduced their body weight by at least 5%. Novo Nordisk funded the study.

The mean age of the included patients was 46 years, and 76% were women. The mean baseline BMI was 37.9, and 44% of the patients had prediabetes. Percentage weight loss was −14.9% with Semaglutide vs −2.4% with placebo (difference −12.4%; p < 0.001). More Semaglutide-treated patients lost at least 5% of their body weight (86.4% vs. 31.5%; p < 0.001), noting that half of Semaglutide-treated patients achieved a 15% or more weight loss at 68 weeks, versus only 5% with placebo (p < 0.001).

Secondarily, other benefits note that Semaglutide reduces blood pressure, basal blood glucose, lipid profile, or improvement in physical fitness.

Who Should not take Semaglutide?

In an exploratory analysis Semaglutide treatment was safe, although gastrointestinal adverse events (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) were more frequent with Semaglutide (74% vs. 48%). These adverse events were mild or moderate in intensity in most patients. There were 3 cases of acute pancreatitis with semaglutide (0.2%), mild intensity, and a higher incidence of cholelithiasis (1.8% vs. 0.6%).

The authors concluded that in overweight or obese adults without DM2, weekly subcutaneous Semaglutide treatment and lifestyle intervention were associated with sustained and clinically relevant weight loss (, NCT03548935). “In adults with obesity or overweight but without DM2, weekly treatment with subcutaneous Semaglutide. Plus intervention in lifestyle habits was associated with sustained and clinically relevant weight loss over time.”

What does Semaglutide do to your Body?

Obesity is a significant public health problem. Although the ideal treatment is prevention, few pharmacological treatments have demonstrated efficacy and safety once established. Semaglutide is a hypoglycemic drug with known efficacy for metabolic control and reducing CV events in patients with DM2. It is probably the most effective GLP-1 analog for weight loss. Its weekly administration also made it an exciting option for treating obesity, as seen in STEP 1.

Semaglutide Weight loss Reviews

Weight reduction was observed early at four weeks, reaching a nadir at 60 weeks of follow-up, and sustains over time. The results were very positive, showing a powerful effect on weight loss. The change in body weight at 68 weeks with semaglutide was −15.3 kg.

In the study, only a minority of the patients included had a history of CV disease (2%), so its applicability to patients with established CV disease is unknown. A phase III clinical trial is currently evaluating the efficacy of Semaglutide 2.4 mg/week versus placebo in reducing major cardiovascular events in patients with BMI ≥ 27 and established CV disease but without DM2 (NCT03574597).

Another clinical trial, for example, is assessing the efficacy of this drug in the treatment of heart failure with preserved systolic function. GLP-1 analogs have additional positive effects on weight loss, both at a metabolic and cardiovascular level, improving the lipid profile, lowering blood pressure.

The dose used was higher than the dose approved for its indication in DM2. It is important to remember that the starting dose was 0.25 mg per week. There was a gradual increase (0.5-1-1.7 mg) every four weeks until the target dose was complete. Suppose the drug achieves the indication for the treatment of obesity. In that case, it is essential to maintain this titration scheme in clinical practice.

Semaglutide Cost

Although the drug was safe, 75% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, with nausea being the most common side effect even with this careful titration. However, we should note that only 7% led to drug discontinuation. The high cost of the drug may be a limitation for its widespread use in clinical practice with this indication.

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Albuterol Review

Albuterol ReviewIn this Albuterol review we look at how it works and what it is used for. Plus where the best place to buy Albuterol online. First, we sell Albuterol as a research chemical. It is not for human consumption. We sell Peptides Warehouse Albuterol in the raw state. It is a peptide that is the ingredient in many asthmas treatments.


Where to Buy Albuterol?

If you are in the research community and want the best research peptide Albuterol click here now! We supply Albuterol 5mg per ml x 60ml for the affordable price of $52.33. The research products are made in the USA by established Peptides Warehouse. These specialist products are clinically tested and safe. You will get the best service from easy online ordering to easy payment options and fast shipping.

What is Albuterol?

Albuterol is a research chemical that belongs to a group of medicines called bronchodilators (bronchodilators) or breathing aids. It relaxes the muscles of the small airways in the lungs. In this way it leads to their expansion, which facilitates breathing, reduces coughing and chest tightness. The bronchodilator effect of Albuterol occurs about 5 minutes after inhalation and lasts about 4-6 hours.

How Does Albuterol Work?

Albuterol is a selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist. It is very similar in structure and action to Clenbuterol. It is also sold as Salbutamol in some countries. Salbutamol is another generic name for this drug. Albuterol Sulfate belongs to a broad group of medicines called sympathomimetics.

Sympathomimetics are drugs that affect the sympathetic nervous system in various ways, mainly through the distribution of adrenoceptors. There are actually nine different types of these receptors in the body. These are classified as alpha or beta and further divided by type. Depending on the specific affinities of these drugs to different receptors, they can be used to treat asthma, hypertension, arrhythmias, migraines and anaphylactic shock.

Albuterol Review – Top 5 Questions

1. Does Albuterol Help Heal Your Lungs?

Albuterol only controls symptoms of asthma and other lung diseases. It does not cure them.

2. How Does Albuterol Make u Feel?

Albuterol relaxes and opens air passages to the lungs to make it easier to breath.

 3. Is Albuterol Hard on the Lungs?

Some asthmas sufferers use potent inhalers that can make the lungs product harmful chemicals. Ultimately, this increases a chance of an asthma attack if using too much to often.

4. Does Albuterol help Instantly?

Great care needs to be taken before using Albuterol. Make sure you get advice from your doctor. It is used for fast relief from asthma. It is important to use the correct dosage.

5. What are Albuterol Side Effects

Side effects from Albuterol include muscle aches, headache, nasal irritation, nervousness, shakiness, and throat problems. More serious problems that can occur are rapid heart beat, and heart fluttering. But these are not common.

Why Use Albuterol?

Albuterol inhaler is a quick relief or life-saving medication used to reduce asthma symptoms. Albuterol can reduce the acute symptoms associated with worsening asthma, such as:

Chest tightness
Chronic cough
Lack of air

Albuterol can also be used to reduce respiratory problems associated with other non-infectious respiratory problems.

How to take Albuterol Inhaler

Albuterol is also known as salbutamol Inhaler. It sprays finely sprayed droplets that you need to inhale. Make sure you know how to use the Inhaler properly. Detailed instructions can be found below in this leaflet. If you have any problems using the Inhaler, talk to your doctor. Salbutamol Inhaler should only be inhaled orally. Take the medicine as your doctor advised. The doctor determines the dosage and duration of treatment.

Summary: Albuterol Review

Albuterol is a synthetic beta2-agonist with bronchodilator effects. It is used in the treatment of bronchospasm, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. Salbutamol is available in various pharmaceutical dosage forms, including tablets and aerosols.

Salbutamol is marketed under the tradename “Albuterol”, “Albudrine”, “Combivent”, “Diabinol”, “Exalgo”, “Inhalecure”, and “Ventolin” in the United States.




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Cardiogen Peptide For Sale

Cardiogen Peptide For SaleCardiogen peptide for sale here today for the competitive price of $65.00. Peptides USA is the one-stop-shop for the latest research products. We supply pages of premium quality peptides, amino acids, and proteins for education and laboratory use. If you are in the research and science community and want the best research materials make sure you shop online with us. In this post we discuss the latest research peptide Cardiogen. It is a research peptide showing positive results in treating heart disease and normalizing the cardiovascular system.

Best Place to Buy Cardiogen Peptide?

Buy Cardiogen with us today and save money. We have lots of amazing offers to save you money. Why not take advantage of our bulk buys and amazing offers? Yes, the more you buy the more money you save. Browse our store today and you will see we supply a huge range of top-quality research products. Our research products are all US-Made by leading Peptides Sciences. Based in California Peptide Sciences is an established research company with an unblemished record in the research industry. With over 12 years of serving research and education establishments they are top of their game. You are assured a first-class service from start to finish. Plus, every research product is additive and TFA free, and pure!

<<Buy Cardiogen for the best price online $65.00!>>


What is Cardiogen Peptide?

Cardiogen is a research peptide first made in Russia at the St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology. Studies with Cardiogen peptide are showing it to be effective on cardiovascular system function. It works with other heart peptides to restore protein synthesis in the cells. Cardiogen significantly helps improve heart function, and prolongs life and eradicates diseases. The peptide Cardiogen can achieve an active life and stop pathologies forming in the heart muscle. Cardiogen Benefits include:

  • Angina attacks
  • Chronic heart failure
  • Ischemia
  • Heart attack (Myocardium)
  • Hypertension
  • Myocardial hypertrophy
  • Myocarditis
  • Myocardiodystrophy at any age

How Cardiogen Works?

Cardiogen stimulates cardiomyocyte proliferation while at the same time as lowering fibroblast growth. Studies show this action leads to a reduction in scar formation and a better outcome linked to cardiac remodeling leading to heart failure. While Cardiogen is a possible heart disease treatment, further studies are showing it can treat some cancers. As with all research peptide there is a lot of investigations going on to find new treatments for serious diseases that affect people globally.

Why Cardiogen?

Cardiogen is an important discovery in research into heart diseases and more.  It can help:
-Increase the body’s immunity
-Improve elasticity of renewed heart tissue
-Provide better resistance in the heart muscle after viral infections complications
-Boosts stamina

A positive find of Cardiogen is it works well with other medication and supplements. It improves the effectiveness of other treatments. Studies have shown Cardiogen is not addictive, and doesn’t cause any allergic reactions of side effects.

It is used as a treatment for high risk groups such as:

  • inherited condition
  • lifestyle
  • stress

We are all aware of heart disease and how serious it is, so the creation of new treatments are developing all of the time. If you are in the research sector make sure you buy the best products online here today!

<<Cardiogen Peptide For Sale>>





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Chonluten Peptides For Sale

Chonluten Peptides For Sale
Chonluten Peptides For Sale

Are you looking for Chonluten peptides but not sure where to buy? Read on to find the best quality and lowest prices of this revolutionary peptide.

Chonluten is a cytogen and contains peptide bioregulators of the lungs and bronchi, which contribute to the normalization of respiratory function.

Where to Find Chonluten Peptides For Sale

You may or may not have heard of Peptide Sciences of California however they are unaguably the most respected manufacturer and seller of very high quality peptides and other research chemicals and they are all made within the USA. >>VISIT PEPTIDE SCIENCES STORE<<

Chonluten normalizes protein synthesis in the cells of lung and bronchial tissue, which regulates their activity. Restores and preserves the tissue of the lung alveoli and bronchial mucosa, provides the processes of cellular nutrition, improving respiratory function in general. Like all cytogens, it has a faster but less lasting effect than similar cytomax Taxorest Chonluten can be taken not only as part of a comprehensive treatment, but also as a prophylactic, for example on the eve of the season of acute respiratory infections and influenza.

Chonluten is recommended for:

Chonluten is recommended for:
  • prevention of respiratory diseases;
  • age-related deterioration of the respiratory system;
  • the consequences of prolonged smoking;
  • intensive sports training;
  • Chronic respiratory failure;
  • Chronic cardiopulmonary insufficiency;
  • inflammatory diseases of the lungs (bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchial asthma);
  • after prolonged stay on a respirator;
  • inactive phase tuberculosis;
  • chest trauma;
  • airway burns;
  • toxic bronchopulmonary damage, including carbon monoxide exposure.HONLUTEN is a peptide complex containing amino acids that help to normalize the functions of the lungs and bronchial mucosa.
    Clinical studies have shown the effectiveness of HONLUTEN in the complex recovery of patients with impaired lung and bronchial function in acute and chronic respiratory diseases of infectious and non-infectious origin, as well as for maintaining respiratory function in advanced and old age.

Recommended for:
• chronic respiratory failure
• chronic heart and lung failure
• recovery from pneumonia
• Consequences of artificial lung ventilation
• Respiratory distress syndrome
• Tuberculosis of the lungs in remission
• Chest injuries
• Burns of the upper respiratory tract
• Consequences of toxic lung damage, including carbon dioxide poisoning
• Carbon dioxide poisoning • training
• maintaining the function of the respiratory system in the elderly
• chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma
• respiratory allergies
• pulmonary emphysema

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Research Peptides for Hair Loss

Research Peptides for Hair LossResearch Peptides for Hair Loss – A group of scientists has identified a peptide or a molecule made up of several amino acids – that plays a determining role in different types of alopecia. We know that hair loss is stressful and can cause lack of confidence and more. In this post we look at what research peptides are available for hair loss and what is the latest news on the laboratory!

Can Peptides Help with Hair Loss?

Peptides, like proteins, are responsible for numerous functions in the body, many of which are not known to science. Among them could be some processes that lead to hair loss, reported the team led by Professor Xue Zhang, of the Beijing Medical Union College.

The mutations suffered by a peptide reduce the effect of its function. It generates a strange variant of genetic alopecia. The discovery opens a field of research for developing new drugs in the treatment of some variants of hair loss in humans.

Research Peptides for Hair Loss Results

The researchers recall that it showed that mutations in the HR gene are responsible for rare alopecia, known as congenital atrichia, ten years ago. This condition occurs in the first months of life of people who have hair when they are born but begin to lose it progressively and lose it entirely before the age of five, although there are cases of complete alopecia from birth.

What Causes Hair Loss?

Other hairy sites on the body may be affected. But eyebrows, eyelashes, pubic and axillary hair are more often present in scant quantity. Another type of alopecia, known as Maria Unna’s hereditary hypotrichosis (MUHH), has been linked to the behavior of the HR gene, but the mutations have not been identified. The experts detected a sequence adjacent to the HR gene that encodes a small peptide, and that mutations are in 19 families with MUHH. The peptide works by inhibiting HR production, so mutations lead to higher levels, which must be kept in a certain range to prevent hair loss. It is the revolutionary baldness treatment that will probably never see the light of day

Researchers Find Epilepsy Drug Increases Hair Thickness

For many men, losing hair begins to be a problem in middle age and becomes their workhorse for the rest of their lives. Common baldness or androgenic alopecia is the most common cause of hair loss and is related to an alteration in male hormones or androgens, marked by a genetic predisposition. It can affect 40% of men between 18 and 39 and 95% over 70 years.

Curing Baldness is Big News

A group of researchers from the University has published a hopeful study on the efficacy of valproic acid in the journal Biomaterials. A drug often used in the treatment of seizures and also against the disorder bipolar. Experts observe an increase in the density and thickness of hair in mice. In the trial, they used a new system of dissolvable cellulose microneedles, which they have patented under DMN.

Many treatments tested on mice never get tested on humans. However, “it would not be the first time that a promising drug in mice has not reached humans,” explains Sergio Vañó, member of the AEDV Trichology Group and director of the Trichology and Alopecia Unit at the University Hospital. Ramon y Cajal. The reason is that “the biology of the hair follicle of rodents is very different from ours. We have the example of capillary cloning: in 2003, it was a success in mice, then in 2018 and we still cannot replicate it in humans”.

Last year, another group of researchers at the University of Texas studying nerve tumor formation and the role of the KROX20 protein in nerve development found that if they killed the cells that produce this protein, the mice lost their hair. In addition, they observed that the cells that produce KROX20 also made another protein called SCF, which is responsible for giving hair color. Conclusion: The loss of SCF makes us go gray, and the failure of KROX20 makes us lose our hair. So do we have the cure in our hands? Again the same problem: it is a study in mice.

The work presented by the Seoul group “is interesting because part of the evidence —although still scarce— that relates the topical use of valproic acid as a treatment for androgenetic alopecia”, explains Miguel Sánchez Viera, director of the Institute of Comprehensive Dermatology (IDEI ).

Injectable Peptides for Hair Growth

The great novelty, the biodegradable needles used to inject the drug.
“Years of research are needed to know if this hypothesis is confirmed or its effectiveness because the first results indicate only a slight improvement. The most innovative thing about your study, beyond the antiepileptic drug, is the patent of these microneedles biodegradable containers that they have designed,” adds Sánchez Viera. But “it will take years for this new system to be tested in humans, to check its level of safety, non-toxicity, and efficacy, depending on the necessary doses.”

The Seoul experiment has one point in its favor: if a laboratory wants to invest in these microcapsules with the anticonvulsant substance to treat alopecia, it is already halfway there since it is a drug that has already been approved, tested, and marketed for use systemically.

Much is known about valproic acid, including its toxicity —serious in pregnant women— making it easier to reach the final phase sooner. However, the patented microneedles must also pass rigorous research and approval controls. It will allow time to market, and if its efficacy and safety in humans are proven, perhaps one day, it will become a new and revolutionary treatment against baldness.

Peptides for Hair Growth

Not even the most expensive hair loss shampoo works; whatever the advertising says
And in the meantime, what options are there to deal with this problem? Experts warn an anti-hair loss shampoo, even if it is obscenely expensive, will never work no matter what the advertising says. And low-cost surgery, when it consists of traveling to foreign clinics of dubious healthiness, is not worth it either because this type of surgical intervention for a hair transplant can lead to infections and scars.

The only scientific evidence against hair loss is medical treatments, either topically, as gels or lotions, orally or by injection. “So far, the only approved and safe drugs routinely used in clinical experience are minoxidil which is still being investigated.

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Are Peptides Good for Anti-Aging?

Buy Ipamorelin 5mgAre Peptides Good for Anti-Aging?  This post looks at five things you need to know about Anti-Aging Peptides.

What are Anti-Aging Peptides?

Peptides have earned a place in anti-aging routines, and not in vain! This post looks at what they are and how they benefit us in skincare.

Are peptides suitable for aging skin?

If you know anything about skin aging, you’ve already heard of skin peptides, which are protein fragments touted as the latest must-have antiaging active ingredient. You probably also know that maintaining your skin’s collagen levels is key to looking smoother as you age. One of the ways you can do this is by opting for skincare that includes specific collagen-boosting peptides as an active ingredient.

Collagen maintains the levels of firmness and flexibility of the skin. But as we age, the body produces a lot less, especially if the skin has extensive damage from UV rays or toxic cigarette smoke. Collagen loss over time causes lines, wrinkles, and loss of tone, so in terms of skincare. Thus investing in collagen protection and production is a good way to fight the aging process.

Skin peptides can help with this, but what do they do?

Top 5 facts about Anti-Aging Peptides

1- The peptides of the skin are natural

These short chains of amino acids are naturally present in the body. They form the basis of specific proteins, such as collagen, keratin, and elastin, found in the skin. Plant peptides, particularly from pea and wheat plants, are frequently used in dermis care to strengthen proteins already present in the skin.

2-Skin peptides inform the body to produce more collagen

By binding to receptor cells in the body, peptides trigger metabolic actions, effectively “telling” you to create or use a nutrient. In skincare, this usually means counting cells inside the skin to synthesize more collagen. One of the proteins that keep skin intact, making it more resistant to the aging process.

3-Skin peptides can make the skin firmer

Collagen helps maintain the two main layers of the skin. First, the top layer of the dermis; and the second layer, or epidermis, together.
During the aging process, the epidermis thins, and the junctional layer between the dermis and epidermis flattens, causing sagging and elasticity loss. By activating the skin to make more collagen and strengthening what is already present, skin peptides affect both tone and elasticity. More collagen means firmer, plumper, younger-looking skin.

Do you want to know more about the benefits of peptides on your skin? We recommend this reading, Peptides: Meet the antiaging ingredient that changes the game.

4- Different skin peptides work in different ways

Different peptides can produce different effects by binding to exact receptors in the skin. Dermican™ peptide increases tissue repair, for example, and other peptides can act to brighten skin, reduce acne, and improve rosacea. From smoothing lines and repairing damage to boosting hydration and improving skin color, antiaging care often contains skin peptides, especially those that tell the body to produce collagen more efficiently, helping to keep skin toned and smooth.

5- Skin peptides combined with other ingredients

Peptides for skin are great, but like many things, they’re better as part of a package. Some of the products in the Liftactiv range, for example, combine an influential association of antiaging skin peptides with vitamin C, which also works on hydration and oxidation levels, which, together with peptide-based actions on firmness and elasticity, fulfills a double function against aging.

Peptides can be influential players in skincare. They stimulate skin cell renewal and regeneration and play an essential role in fighting several different signs of aging with targeted action. Make room for products that include peptides in your daily skincare routine, and you’ll reap the antiaging benefits.