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Oral Peptides For Sale

Oral Peptides For Sale
Oral Peptides For Sale

Oral Peptides For Sale here for study only Here Now! While oral peptides are limited to buy, Peptide Sciences supply oral peptides in the form of research capsules for education and development only. These are a NEW line for researchers to find new treatments to age-related conditions such as weight loss, gut inflammation and repair and recovery of bones and muscles. In total, we have six research peptide capsules available for study and at the best prices online. They are US-Made, safe, and additive and TFA-Free. Why not read on for more about our selection of oral peptide for sale!

Is it Legal to Buy Peptides Online?

Peptides represent a billion-dollar business in the pharmaceutical sector. In the cosmetic industry they are ingredients in anti-aging creams.

A peptide is a short chain of amino acids joined together by a bond and is used to increase the body’s growth hormone production. It is illegal to buy and use peptides for purposes other than research.

However, as far as research peptides go most are still in the early stages of clinical trials. Thus, there is not enough proof they are safe for main stream use.

What are Oral Peptides?

Most peptides can only work when given by injections due to their degrading when swallowing by stomach enzymes. Ultimately, this problem prevents most research peptides from being FDA-approved Simply because they don’t work when taken orally, as the stomach enzymes cause them to degrade and not do their job. Ultimately they will not work.

In addition, a lot of don’t want to inject themselves! Fortunately, experts are now developing oral research capsules to stop this problem.

Oral Peptides For Sale – Top 6 Research Capsules

  1. 5 Amino-1mq Buy Online

5-Amino-1MQ is a small molecule that is important in metabolism and energy. It can reduce fat cells and fat deposits, resulting in weight loss. 5-Amino-1MQ promotes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), the main factor in cellular metabolism. Animal research shows it reduces the chance of diabetes, cancer, obesity, heart disease, and kidney and liver disease.

2. Gut Inflammation Research For Sale 

Gut Inflammation capsules contains:
250mcg Stable
BPC-157 Arginate Form
500mcg Larazotide
500mcg KPV
This gut inflammation research capsule can help with gluten intolerance, inflammatory bowel disease microbiome, and provide benefits to the intestines.

3. Longevity, Performance & Obesity Research Capsules For Sale

These research capsules have a blend of three peptides known to increase metabolism, slow down aging and reduce inflammation and anti-apoptosis activity in cells. Additional research with Longevity, Performance & Obesity Research Capsules shows they can reduce cancer, diabetes, heart disease, neurodegeneration, liver and kidney disease.

4. Buy MK-677 Capsules for Research 

MK-677 is a research chemical also known as Ibutamoren and Oratrope. MK-677 is available in liquid vials and research capsules. It can increase growth hormone and help treat problems such as
-growth hormone deficiency
-muscle and bone wastage
-Alzheimer’s disease.
MK-677 in trials shows promising results in fat loss, better sleep and improving skin, hair and nail condition.

5. Buy Repair and Recovery 60 Research Capsules

Repair and Recovery Capsules contain:
-Stable BPC-157 Arignate
-Thymosin Beta-4 Fragment
It can promote wound healing and repair tissue. The peptides BPC-157 and TB-500 improve the nervous system, protect cells, and support neurons and tissue repair. There is evidence it can treats brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and Alzheimer’s.

6. Buy Tesofensine Capsules

Tesofensine 500mcg research capsules are a serotonin-noradrenaline-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. The first studies found tesofensine positively affects Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. But, a side effect of the peptide was dramatic weight loss and appetite loss. So, now more trials are being done for its weight loss benefits.

Where do I find Peptides?

For those in the research sector you can find any of the above research capsules for sale here with Peptide Sciences. They stock a wide range of the best research products online that are clinically tested and safe. You can also find the latest stock of premium oral peptides for sale with them.

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KPV Peptide Buy Now Here!

KPV Peptide Buy

KPV Peptide buy now for research use at the amazing price of $50.00. We supply the best quality research KPV peptide online. So, if you are in the science and research industry make sure you check out our online store. We supply pages of top-quality research chemicals for research only. In addition, our research products are safe and made in the USA. Therefore they are clinically tested, additive and TFA-Free and pure. KPV peptide is a strong anti-inflammatory research peptide. Studies show it effectively treats inflammatory bowel disease, reducing inflammation and healing wounds.

What is KVP?

KPV is the C-terminal peptide fragment of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). It has potent anti-inflammatory activity in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, cardiovascular system, immune system, and joints. KPV has also shown promise as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Since KPV is a short-chain peptide, its bioavailability is high and it can be administered in multiple ways, including orally.

<<KPV Peptide Buy Now from Peptide Sciences for the best price online $50.00.>>

How Does KPV Work?

KPV has the potential to reduce intestinal inflammation and provide faster recovery from some disorders of the intestinal system. KPV inhibits TNF-alpha and reduces the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB (protein complex that controls DNA transcription), thus helping to reduce inflammatory changes in the intestine.

Studies show that KPV exerts its effect only against excessive inflammation and has little effect on non-inflamed tissue: KPV enters colon cells via PepT1, a protein channel that is only expressed in the intestine during states inflammatory.

In addition, KPV also serves as an anti-inflammatory in general. This is because alpha-MSH and several of its analogs reduce inflammation associated with a wide variety of diseases such as dermatitis, vasculitis, fibrosis, and arthritis.

Similarly, KPV promotes wound healing and can reduce the type of chronic inflammation that leads to hypertrophic scar formation, such as keloid scars.

KPV Benefits

  • KPV effectively combats various disorders of the intestinal system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
  • It has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect throughout the body.
  • Accelerates wound healing.
  • Helps prevent wounds from generating hypertrophic or keloid scars.

KPV Peptide Ulcerative Colitis Help?

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory and ulcerative disease of the mucosa of the colon. It is most often characterized by bloody diarrhoea. There may be extra intestinal symptoms, particularly arthritis. The long-term risk of colon cancer is higher than that of unaffected people. Diagnosis is by colonoscopy. Treatment consists of 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, biological agents, antibiotics, and sometimes surgery.

KPV Dosage – What Can it Do?

KPV is a research tripeptide and is hugely influential in gut health. In addition, it can treat IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) and colon cancer. There is also positive evidence that KPV can help skin conditions such as psoriasis. Clinical trials on animal models show positive results in
-strong anti-inflammatory effects
-Improved gut health
– IBD and Colon cancer treatment
-heals wounds and injuries
-Antimicrobial efficacy


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Tesofensine Buy Online USA

Tesofensine Buy Online USA

Tesofensine buy the online USA-made! If you are in the research trade and searching for Tesofensine peptide for sale; click here now. We supply research products that are the best online, made in the US, and pure. Our premium research products are high-quality and safe. They are additive and TFA free. Our online store has pages of research products for sale at competitive prices. Browse our shop NOW!

Tesofensine Where to Buy?

Tesofensine 500mcg (30 Capsules) is a research peptide. It is a serotonin-noradrenaline-dopamine reuptake inhibitor and was first tested for its effect on Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. But, studies found a side effect of tesofensine was dramatic weight loss and reduced appetite.

Thus, manufacturer of Tesofensine Capsules are currently testing the benefits of the reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of obesity and its associated conditions, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. One of the most promising results has been the potential to treat people with obesity. The research peptide Tesofensine is available only for research.

<<Tesofensine Buy Online USA Here for the amazing price of $250.00>>

Tesofensine Capsules – Important Facts

This product is currently being researched and is not a known medical product. The manufacturer are currently conducting clinical trials on the potential of this medication in the treatment of obesity and its associated conditions, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

The manufacturer of Tesofensine are currently conducting clinical trials on the potential of this medication in the treatment of obesity and its associated conditions, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

Tesofensine Ingredients

Tesofensine is manufactured by Saniona since 2014. It is being studied for the treatment of people with the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

How Does Tesofensine work?

Tesofensine is a serotonin-noradrenaline-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. It stops serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine from being taken back into the cells.  It was first tested for its effect on people with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Tesofensine works by reabsorption, where it works in a similar way to a neurotransmitter. Tesofensine increases the concentration of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. The result of increased neurotransmitter concentration is increased satiety, decreased eating or increased energy.

Side effects of Tesofensine

As with all drugs, Tesofensine has side effects. The most common side effects include loss of appetite, anxiety, sleep disturbance, nausea and increased vomiting. If you have heart problems, speak to your doctor before taking Tesofensine.

Buy Tesofensine Peptide

Tesofensine is a potentially new weight loss medication currently undergoing clinical trials. Research suggests Tesofensine is more effective than Xenical and Reductil. These are the two slimming pills currently on the market. European trials report that patients who were dieting and took the highest dose of the medication for six months lost up to 12% of their body weight.

Tesofensine peptide is the latest drug testing for the treatment of obesity. In chemical terms, it is a Serotonin Noradrenaline, Dopamine Phenyltropane Reuptake Inhibitor. It is a weight loss agent that suppresses hunger and increases the feeling of a full stomach. A process due to the reuptake of substances responsible for hunger, such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. At the present time it should be taken under medical advice and follow the specialist’s instructions.

How Tesofensine is used?

The research dosage consists of giving patients 0.5 mg of tesofensine daily and a calorie-restricted diet.

Tesofensine Side Effects

Side effects of tesofensine are dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, diarrhoea, irritability, increased sweating, tremors, decreased libido, and increased blood pressure.


Tesofensine is a research peptide. It is still in the early stages of study. It is contraindicated in people with high blood pressure, pregnant or lactating women and children.

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Tirzepatide Weight Loss Trial

Tirzepatide Weight LossTreatment with the drug tirzepatide results in a significant and sustained weight loss in adults with obesity. This is according to a large study published in the New England journal of medicine.


Tirzepatide Weight Loss Trial

Obesity is one of the biggest health challenges of our time. The chronic disease impairs the quality of life increasing the risk of other serious conditions such as
-Cardiovascular disease
-Mobility problems

In addition, it also increases the risk of several types of cancer.

Surgery that reduces the patient’s stomach, combined with lifestyle changes, is the most effective obesity treatment. But in recent years, several drugs for chronic diseases have also been developed. There are currently four approved anti-obesity drugs in the EU; orlistat, liraglutide, naltrexone/bupropion and semaglutide.

The former works by reducing fat absorption in the intestine and the remaining three by controlling the appetite.

Tirzepatide FDA Approval

In the current study, the researchers examined tirzepatide, a so-called GIP / GLP 1 agonist. It stimulates receptors for glucose-dependent insulin-releasing peptide GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1, GLP 1. One of them affects food intake and energy consumption. And the other amplifies the effect. Tirzepatide was recently approved in the United States as a treatment for type 2 diabetes.

The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study with 2,539 adult participants. They had a body mass index, BMI of 30 or more, or 27 or more and at least one weight-related complication, excluding diabetes. The mean age was 44.9 years, and 67 per cent of the participants were women. The study started in December 2019 and was conducted in nine countries.

For 72 weeks, participants received either tirzepatide (5 mg, 10 mg or 15 mg) or a placebo once a week. The treatment period included a dose increase period of up to 20 weeks. Participants would also eat balanced meals with a deficit of 500 calories per day and engage in physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week.

Tirzepatide Weight Loss Tirzepatide Weight Loss Trial

In total, 86 per cent of the participants completed the treatment. At the study’s end, the weight loss percentage was:
-15 per cent in those who received 5 mg of tirzepatide
-19.5 per cent of those who had received 10 mg
-29 per cent of those who had received 15 mg.
In the placebo group, the average weight loss was 3.1 per cent.

The results also showed improvements in, among other things, waist measurements, blood pressure, fasting insulin levels and lipid levels. 95.3 per cent of participants with prediabetes at the beginning of the study had returned to normal blood sugar levels after 72 weeks. The corresponding figure in the placebo group was 61.9 per cent.

About 10% of participants who had received tirzepatide reported at least one side effect.

This can be compared with 72 per cent in the placebo group. The most common side effects were nausea, diarrhoea and constipation with mild or moderate severity. More side effects occurred when the dose was increased.

Six% of participants reported severe side effects. These were evenly distributed across the drug groups and the placebo group. In total, 21% of these were related to covid-19. Eleven deaths were reported, seven in the drug group and four in the placebo group.

What are Tirzepatide Side Effects?

According to the researchers, tirzepatide shows an “unusually significant degree” of weight loss. They also note that there was an expected effect on the occurrence of side effects, as the study was conducted almost entirely during the corona pandemic.

The researchers point out, among other things, the sample size and that the vast majority completed the treatment as some of the study’s strengths. They make the results relatively generalizable, they say.

One limitation they mention is that the participants in the study may represent a subpopulation with a more significant commitment to losing weight than the general population with obesity.

They also mention that only 5.5% of the participants had a BMI between 27 and 30, which counts as overweight. Therefore, further studies are needed in this patient group.


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Tirzepatide for Weight Loss

 Tirzepatide for Weight LossTirzepatide for Weight Loss: Tirzepatide is marketed under the brand name Mounjaro. It is a drug approved in the US for treating type 2 diabetes. However, the studies currently being carried out promising offer results also in the treatment of obesity.

Tirzepatide Weight Loss Study

Studies show some patients able to lose weight lose an average of 20% body weight. It shows the results of the SURMOUNT-1 clinical trial, carried out in the USA and recently published in the scientific journal The New England Journal of Medicine. In more detail, according to the study, treatment with high doses of tirzepatide (about 15 mg weekly) would cause them to lose about 22.5% of their body weight.

“The study that is already in phase III of safety and efficacy for the treatment of obesity, indicates that, effectively, it could reduce an average of up to 20% of body weight in some patients”. States Dr Albert Lecube, Vice President of the Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity (SEEDO) and Head of Endocrinology at the Arnau de Vilanova University Hospital (Lleida).

“It is better to express it as a percentage of weight loss because if you weigh 200 kilos with the drug, you still lose 40 kilos; or if you have 80 kilos, you still lose 10. That is to say, it does not mean that everyone who takes it -speaking in a way every day- will stay in the bones. By doing the treatment well, you will lose between 20-25 kilos, on average. However, there will possibly continue to be people who will lose more and others less”, clarifies the expert.

How Does Tirzepatide Work for Weight Loss?

This drug would have a double action against obesity. As the doctor explains, it acts against satiety signals, reducing appetite. The GLP-1 peptide (like other medications indicated for obesity such as Saxenda or Wegovy already did, the latter approved only in the US) activates another component called GIP that could imply body fat regulation. “This synergy would make it more powerful, and therefore, the body would be able to lose much more weight,” he says.

If this drug is for treating obesity, it will join other medical therapies such as Saxenda. Saxenda is the most effective medication available in Spain, from which some patients with obesity have benefited since 2016. Likewise, Saxenda shares the same active ingredient (liraglutide) for treating type 2 diabetes, but with different doses and indications. Once again, it proves that a drug against type 2 diabetes also has benefits in treating obesity. In this case, the active ingredient would be tirzepatide.

Tirzepatide Injection

However, according to the published results, Tirzepatide would be even more effective than Saxenda. In addition, it would also be an injectable medication, in this case weekly; that is, one puncture a week would suffice. Saxenda application is one injectable per day.

Also, the indications for this drug would be the same as for Saxenda. Especially for patients with a BMI above 30 or above 27.5 with pathologies associated with excess weight, such as

What Diabetic Drug Helps with Weight Loss?

However, it is essential to remember that the approach to obesity must always be comprehensive. Not only is it enough to take the drug, and that’s it, but there must also be -and significant- changes in lifestyle in terms of diet and physical exercise.
“Obesity is a metabolic, chronic disease that requires a commitment on the part of the patient in terms of lifestyle. It is key to do physical exercise regularly and eat a diet that is as healthy and balanced as possible. Weight loss will be greater if you accompany the drug with diet and exercise,” he says.

Tirzepatide will not be financed against obesity. However, Tirzepatide will soon be available in Spain for treating type 2 diabetes. “probably early next year,” says Lecube, and it will be financed, as is the case with all diabetes drugs.

When Will Tirzepatide be Available?

Ultimately, if it is approved for obesity, it would not be financed by the public health system. The same is with Saxenda because obesity in Spain and other countries is not yet recognized as a chronic disease. Therefore, “patients with obesity should know that they would have to pay for it themselves,” laments the expert.

According to data published by SEEDO, 53.8 % of the Spanish population is overweight, with obesity corresponding to 17.2%. For this reason, the expert insists, it is essential that obesity is recognized for what is a chronic disease. It is also a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death today in Europe. Obesity is also a risk factor for other conditions such as sleep apnea.

So “treating obesity, all associated diseases would be improved, and there would also be a reduction and economic savings,” explains the doctor. And it is something that entities like SEEDO are fighting for.

Last February, this scientific society called for the disease to be recognized as obesity: “This must be the next step to the development of a National Plan aimed at its prevention as well as its correct diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to start financing pharmacological treatment and incorporate professionals from the field of Human Nutrition into multidisciplinary healthcare teams.”

Let’s not forget that obesity is a multi-causal disease in which many factors intervene:
These must address comprehensively. For this reason, “we are fighting for it to be recognized as a disease to give way to treatments that can finance and the patient does not have to pay out of pocket,”

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Peptides for Healing Joints

MOTS-c 5mgPeptides for healing joints, and bones have been around for a long time now. Experts develop many artificial peptides from human peptides to attempt to find cures and treatments for health problems such as muscle wastage and osteoporosis and more. While many research peptides are still in the early testing stage they do show to be effective in treating these problems. Here we look at the basis of peptides for healing joints and what works the best. 

Why Peptide Therapy?

Peptide therapy uses peptides to make a specific reaction in the body. Peptides have a vast range of therapeutic uses. They are the building blocks of proteins and naturally occur in the body. These tiny proteins regulate many healthy functions in the body but tend to decrease with age.

Many people with health problems consider therapeutic peptides as an alternative treatment. They have many uses and can assist with fat loss, increase muscle, promote growth hormone production and help with anti-aging problems.

What is Peptide Therapy

Peptides are amino acids joined together. They are similar to a small protein. Natural peptides have many body functions that work efficiently, including signal and message. Some work like hormones, and others like neurotransmitters. They all work together to control and influence the body, ensuring it is effective. However, with age, the body makes fewer amino acids and proteins and ultimately shows signs of aging. Therefore scientists are working on copying natural peptides to make a substitute to help combat the aging problems that arise. Since 2015 some research peptides have been approved by the FDA for use as a medication.

Peptide Benefits

Researchers are working hard to find new cures for age-related problems that occur when natural peptides decline in the body. Here are some of the benefits of peptide therapy:

  • Improve stamina in workouts and help with recovery
  • Increases lean muscle growth and strength by developing new muscle cells
  • Promotes the body to process fat and reduce fat from lipolysis
  • Increases strength and maintains muscle mass
  • Helps with wound healing
  • Increases natural HGH or growth hormone
  • Improves libido, sleep, and immune system
  • Promotes memory and concentration
  • It can improve skin health, and elasticity and reduce wrinkles

Which Peptide is Best for Healing?

The four peptides for healing and improve tissue repair and recovery are:

Thymosin Beta 4: Promotes regeneration of blood vessels, muscle cell, and skin cell. Thymosin beta stimulates from the thymus gland

MGF – Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) is a potent peptide that causes muscle cells to divide in trauma and create new muscle cells. This results in muscle growth and repair. It is vital for repairing, recovering, and promoting new cells. 

IGF-1 – IGF-1 is the new generation in increasing muscle strength. It is essential for growth in the body.

CJC-1295/Ipamorelin The combination of CJC/1295 and Ipamorelin reduces body fat by forcing the fat to burn from the stored resources. The blend can increase collagen and cellular repair and promote regeneration.

Can Peptides Heal Injuries?

Peptides are still in the early stages of research so many are still only in use for clinical trials. If you are in the research and science community and want any of the above research peptide click here today. We supply the best quality research products, made in the USA, and 99% purity. Our products are for research use only and not for human consumption.






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Research Peptides for Tendon Repair

Peptides for Tendon RepairResearch peptides for tendon repair exist in the form of BPC-157, but more work needs to be done. BPC-157 peptides are still in the study stage. BPC-157 or body protective compound. It is a man-made protein that shows positive results in healing bones, wounds, improving blood vessels and increasing human growth hormone. BPC 157 is a pentadecapeptide and is not for human use. But, in new studies show it can protect the heart, kidney, and liver. In this post we look at what conditions that one  day BPC-157 peptide will help!

What are the Treatments for Tendinopathy?

Already numerous approaches are available to treat tendinopathy, and research peptides are among them.

So far, tendinitis and tendon adhesions are managed with the following:
-physical therapy
-manual therapy
-electrical stimulation

Others include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral steroids, and research peptides such as BPC-157.
There are other treatments for tendinopathy, such as platelet-rich plasma injection:
-platelet-rich fibrin glue injection
-tendon ultrasound
-extracorporeal shock wave therapy

Still, the most commonly used approach is to recommend that the patient change their exercise habits or perform therapeutic exercises, such as deep tissue massage, myofascial release, and isokinetic stretching. However, the pathophysiology of tendinopathy is not yet well understood, and treatment is limited.

Many treatments are only cell-based therapies that have shown to be effective in animal models and humans.
To repair damaged tendons, cells must be seeded to the tendon and then cultured before tendon repair can begin. The process of tendon repair, known as tendon healing, is comprised of three primary strategies:

-degeneration of the tendon
-formation of a scar tissue repair
-remodeling of the tendon

Tendon repair can take 3-6 months to restore functional strength fully. The slow tendon repair process means that the number of cells available for tendon repair is negligible.

What is Tendinopathy?

The term “tendinopathy” initially describes the pathology of tendons and has become used to describe many kinds of tendon injury. There are multiple causes of tendon pathology, such as tendonitis, tenosynovitis, tenosynovial friction syndrome, and various degenerative disorders.

Tendon degeneration causes
-leading to an increased risk of tendonitis

Tendinopathy is a painful condition where pain usually occurs at the musculotendinous junction in the presence of overuse or repetitive strain. About 25% of the total population is affected by tendinopathy and tendon pathology in some form.

Peptides for tendon repairWhat are the Signs of Tendinopathy?

Tendinopathy can be asymptomatic and can cause tendon pain and weakness. The most commonly affected tendons are those in the arm and hand, including the Achilles tendon and the long flexor tendons of the fingers. In its chronic stages, it can cause inflammation, tendon tears, and tendinosis, a degenerative state in which the cells in the tendon become dysfunctional and unable to remodel. In this state, the tendon becomes thickened and less elastic. Unlike tendinosis, tendinopathy cannot be reversed! But, you can prevent it. Tendinopathy usually begins in young adulthood, but it can affect tendons throughout life, including the wrist and fingers

What is a Tendon?

Tendon is a connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, transmitting force from one end of strength to another. Muscles are capable of contraction, enabling rapid movement of limbs and extending during rest periods. Tendons perform a much more important role; they connect power to bone, allow the muscle to relax when the muscle is no longer in action, and transmit forces between muscle and bone. Tendons have a low breaking strength, poor regeneration, and limited remodeling ability.

The function of tendons in humans is to withstand force and act as shock absorbers, transferring power across joints and transmitting it to the bone.

Research Peptides for Tendon Repair

Several studies are evolving, particularly the use of cell therapy in tendon repair acute or chronic degenerative tendinopathies.

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been used for tendon repair and cell therapy for tendinopathy, with promising results. They come from the bone marrow and have multilineage differentiation capacity, including that of tendon-like tissue.

BMSCs play a significant role in maintaining tendon integrity and repair. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) have the potential for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, with a wide array of therapeutic options that may apply to tendon regeneration.

ADMSCs provide a rich source of easily available autologous cells, and the properties of these cells suggest that they are a suitable candidate for therapeutic use. In addition, these stem cells appear to have therapeutic potential in chronic tendon degeneration because they are more resistant to the effects of tendinopathy than are BMSCs.

What is the Best Peptide for Tendon Repair?

However, few studies have used BMSCs or ADMSCs in humans, and tendon pathologies are still a neglected field. However, new research chemicals are emerging that show promising results in healing wounds one that is showing the best results is BPC-157 peptides. BPC-157 in studies has regenerative and healing effects that might one day be reducing these conditions. To read more about does BPC 157 heal ligaments read this link here!

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What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?

What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?What is the main cause of wrinkles? The skin on your face expresses your emotions. Wrinkles become a part of your body.  Skin aging is due to time and the sun’s effect. It occurs over the entire face or specific areas of the face, such as around the eyes. Sometimes good skincare will decrease the number of wrinkles on the face. It is essential to know that wrinkles can become a part of our face throughout a lifetime. 

They can occur on the forehead, around the eyes, under the eyes, cheekbones, jawline, and mouth corners. In general, a combination of environmental factors and time affects the formation of facial wrinkles. 

People who spend lots of time outdoors are more likely to develop age spots because of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. On the other hand, if you are indoors for most of the day, wrinkles that come to be on your face will be more noticeable. The appearance of these wrinkles can be affected by smoking, lack of sleep, lack of exercise, genetics, and poor nutrition. 

However, we can also prevent them with skin care products that contain effective ingredients that may also help to protect your skin. In this article, we will look at the causes of aging skin and how we can prevent these wrinkles. 

What Causes Wrinkles?

Let us understand how we can prevent the appearance of wrinkles. 

Environmental Factors 

You might be surprised to know that many factors affect how your skin ages are outside your control. These factors include the length of time you spend outdoors, the sun’s rays, the type of air in your environment, and genetics. 


Our skin cells live for about a month. However, you can damage your skin and face even if you’re very young. The body begins to deteriorate as you age. Our skin is composed of cells, and our cells continue to grow older and die. It causes your skin to lose its elasticity, and wrinkles begin to appear. However, you can delay the signs of aging and wrinkles by avoiding the following habits:

Skin products 

It is essential to be careful about using skin care products that you’re using for your skin. If you are using skin care products loaded with toxins, you are more likely to develop various types of skin disorders. If you’re using these types of products, it’s better to look for some natural skin care products that are safe and provide various benefits for your skin. 

You can use them with the use of a mild scrub. You may also need to look for those natural facial masks that provide various benefits to your skin. If you’re using homemade products, it’s better to do complete research about the available products. As you go for those natural skin care products, you should make sure to buy products available in the market at affordable and economical rates. 

Benefits of Skin Aging Care 

Let’s discuss what you can get in return when using skin aging care. 

Healthier Skin

You can get healthier skin when you start using skin care products suitable for your skin. When you are looking for these products, you should know that you can use them with a mild scrub. They will be gentle for your skin and will be safe to use. 

Improved Skin Texture 

You can get improved skin texture when using natural skin care products. These products may also help in improving your skin texture. To get these results, you should buy the products that benefit your skin. You can also use herbal skin care products.

Better Skin Tone 

In this case, you can use skin care products suitable for your skin. They may help to improve your skin tone as well. In addition, they will also help in protecting your skin from various types of skin disorders. You can also look for those products that are affordable, as well as economical. 

Best 5 Tips to Prevent Skin Aging


1. Wash Your Skin Regularly

If you’re using home skin care products, you should be careful about washing your face and body. Wash them often with the use of a mild cleanser. You can also use those products that are suitable for your skin. 

2. Keep Your Skin Hydrated 

When looking for the best skin care products, you should know that you can get many of them at those health food stores. You can also get them in the skincare section of the pharmacy. They may contain herbal extracts or natural ingredients that will help you to maintain your skin’s moisture. 

3. Use the Products That Will Help You Reduce Wrinkles 

You can purchase skin products that can help you reduce your wrinkles. To make them, you should look for products that will be gentle for your skin and safe to use. They may help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. 

4. Use a Face Mask 

Face masks will help you to get healthier skin. They deep clean and remove dirt and bacteria from the skin. There are a wide choice of masks available to suit all skin types. With regular use they can also help in improving your skin texture.  You can also make a homemade mask. When you’re using them, make sure to use them regularly.  

5. Don’t Use The Creams With Toxins 

Avoid using those creams that with toxins. They may damage your skin and your face. However, you can also use natural products that are not loaded with toxins.  

Remove the Makeup 

When using makeup products, ensure you remove them, or they may damage your skin. If you’re using makeup products with toxins, it might be better to change to natural products. However, you can also use the makeup products that will help you to get healthier skin. They may also help to protect your skin from various types of skin disorders. If you’re using them correctly, you will be able to get the desired results. 

Use the Sun Protection Products 

As you know, it is essential to use sunscreen products with high SPF. However, it would be best if you correctly used them. It would help if you started using them when you’re going for outdoor activities. If you’re going for long walks, you need to use sunscreen products on your face. 

Get Some Sleep 

It’s imperative to get a good amount of sleep. However, it’s a fact that we don’t always get the required amount of sleep. That’s because we may be active. If you’re not getting enough sleep, you may get exhausted. It’s vital to take a rest when you feel tired. You can also use those sleep products that will help you have a better sleep. 

Eat Properly 

If you’re looking for skin aging care, you should look for products that will be safe for your skin. It’s also essential to include essential nutrients and vitamins in your diet. If you’re eating those products that will help you get healthy skin, you will be able to get rid of those wrinkles and skin imperfections. If you’re eating unhealthy foods, you may need to look for those that will help you reduce your cholesterol levels. You may need to look for products made with essential nutrients and vitamins. 

Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle 

You should maintain a healthy lifestyle if you’re looking for skin aging care. You need to eat healthy foods. You need to maintain a proper weight if you’re going to have healthy skin. You also need to avoid smoking if you want to get healthy skin. You should also maintain a proper diet if you’re looking for those natural skin care products. 

Avoid Alcohol 

If you’re looking for natural skin aging care, you should look for those products that will be free from Alcohol. It’s imperative to avoid alcoholic beverages to look beautiful and young. You should also avoid caffeine if you’re using skin aging care. 

Conclusion – What is the Main Cause of Wrinkles?

It’s vital to know about skin aging if you’re looking for natural skin aging care. If you’re using those types of products, you will be able to maintain your skin in a healthy and youthful way. However, you need to look for those products that will help you get the desired results.  

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Ghrelin Acetate Buy for Research

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What does Ghrelin do?

Ghrelin Acetate is a natural peptide hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract. It is also called Lenomorelin. In science it is known as the Hunger hormone, and all about ghrelin and its effect on weight

Ghrelin is a hormone also known as the “hunger hormone” because it regulates appetite. It is synthesized and released mainly in the stomach and is responsible for regulating blood sugar, preventing muscle atrophy and protecting the heart.

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In this article will look in detail at everything you need to know about the hunger hormone – its functions and how a person can manage its levels in the body.

Hunger Hormone – Nature and Functions

It is excreted mainly in the stomach when empty in the small intestine, brain and pancreas. Its popular name is the “hunger hormone” because its primary function is to regulates appetite.

When ghrelin activates its growth hormone secretagogue receptor, it causes us to feel hungry, which causes us to consume more food. It is stored in the body as extra fat.

The hormone of hunger through the bloodstream reaches the brain, acting on the so-called hypothalamus. It is a brain structure that synthesizes hormones that regulate hunger, emotions, thirst and many other essential conditions in the body.

In people trying to lose weight or who have recently lost weight, ghrelin levels are usually high, and it is challenging to maintain average body weight.

Effects on the Body

Sleep problems
Menopause symptoms

In addition to stimulating the appetite, ghrelin can signal the body to reduce the thermogenesis of brown fats. When this happens, the body burns less fat at rest.

Brown fat is known as good body fat. It consists of cells that contain tiny fat droplets and many mitochondria that give it its typical color.

Under certain conditions, the cells of this brown tissue burn fat droplets and convert them into heat energy. That is why brown fat is known for its thermogenic properties and its ability to increase the total calories burned.

Ghrelin also affects:

the cycle of sleep and wakefulness
the sense of taste
eating for pleasure
by stimulating impulses from the stomach to the brain center for reward satisfaction
On the positive side, the hunger hormone improves heart health, prevents muscle atrophy, and affects bone metabolism.

It can also stimulate the secretion of stomach acid and thus accelerate the stomach emptying from fluids and solids.

Apart from dictating hunger ghrelin has several other functions:

Pituitary gland secretion: The pituitary gland is in the brain, and its primary function is to secrete hormones. It consists of two main parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe.

Ghrelin helps the pituitary gland to secrete the so-called adenohypophysis hormones.

Insulin regulation: The hormone is involved in insulin regulation by controlling insulin secretion and signaling insulin receptors.

Cardiovascular health: Ghrelin has several beneficial effects on the heart and may be a promising therapeutic agent in treating cardiovascular disease.

Reward-based behavior: As we have noted, the hormone stimulates a person’s sense of reward. Therefore, this hormone is a factor in hedonic eating, in which meals are for pleasure, not a necessity.

Sexual behavior: there are not enough studies to confirm the connection between ghrelin and the desire for sex, but there are severe scientific assumptions in this regard.

What Causes an Increase in Hunger Hormone Levels?

Hunger hormone, Ghrelin, Keto fever, and Autoimmune diseases

Its levels often change during the day and are controlled mainly by food intake. The hormone rises when the stomach is empty and decreases after a person eats. People who are overweight or obese have higher levels of circulating ghrelin. It can lead to a constant state of hunger and hinder weight loss.

When dieting with a yo-yo effect, hormone levels rise sharply, and the impact of weight loss is easily and quickly lost. When following different diets, it is essential not to allow a state of hunger, which activates ghrelin in the body.

In specific health problems, ghrelin also changes its typical values. Such diseases are:

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
nervousness caused by chronic stress

Where Can I Get Ghrelin?

Healthy Diet

Hunger hormone levels rise when you don’t get enough calories. Avoiding starvation and following a nutrient-rich diet can help limit ghrelin secretion.

Focus on the consumption of:

-cruciferous vegetables
-Forest fruits
-high fibre products
-dairy products
-pure protein
-healthy oils such as extra virgin olive oil, coconut oil and those found naturally in other nuts and oily fish

Get enough sleep

Insomnia and lack of sleep increase ghrelin secretion and decrease serum leptin levels, the so-called “Satiety hormone”. It leads to a feeling of hunger. You need to get 7 hours of quality sleep a day.

Eat more protein and combine carbohydrates

Eating high-protein meals and snacks can help saturate and reduce ghrelin levels. Many nutrition studies have shown a significant reduction in hunger and increased satiety after a high-protein diet.

Limit Stress

Although it is almost impossible to eliminate stress, it is essential to limit it as much as possible. High levels of chronic stress can lead to elevated levels of ghrelin. In addition to signaling hunger, ghrelin also affects brain function. Regular physical activity, proper sleep and practicing yoga or meditation help minimize stress.

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Muscle Tissue

Muscle TissueIntroduction Muscle Tissue

Muscle tissue is part of the four primary tissues of the body, and its functions are: to assist in locomotion and movement of the limbs (musculoskeletal system), motility of some organs (smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract), control of the secretion of some glands (Smooth muscle ), chewing (masseter and temporalis muscle, for example), contractile activity (heart) and feeding (most of the meat is muscle tissue).

Muscle tissue divides into three major groups: Skeletal Muscle Tissue (the large majority of muscles), Cardiac Muscle Tissue (heart muscle) and Smooth Muscle (a muscle that surrounds some organs and tissues). Muscles are different in the size and number of muscle fibers, organization of contractile elements, and type of innervation.

Muscle Tissue Types

Even with its differences, muscle tissue has some characteristics that are common to all types, such as common embryonic origin, large amount of mitochondria, to supply its high energy requirement; contact elements, derived from filamentous proteins mainly actin and myosin.

Another characteristic of this tissue is its high vascularization, which is necessary to maintain a good amount of energetic substrates (Glucose and lipids, for example) and oxygen, which is essential for an adequate aerobic muscle contraction. In the absence of good oxygenation for the muscle, intense exercise, for example, starts to contract in an anaerobic way, generating lactic acid that is aggressive to the muscle fibers, fatigue, and causing pain.

Muscle tissue also has a high innervation, especially skeletal muscle tissue, as in this case, each muscle fiber has its innervation.

Muscle cells have characteristic names such as Sarcolemma (Plasmalemma), is the plasma membrane of muscle cells, although it can also be used to designate the basal lamina and reticular fibers; Sarcoplasm, used to designate the cytoplasm; Sarcosomes, used to designate the mitochondria; sarcoplasmic reticulum, used to designate the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (REL) of skeletal and cardiac muscles, as their REL are an essential reservoir of Ca² for the contraction of these cells.

Embryonic Origin

Although the three types of musculature originate in the embryonic layer of the mesoderm, each of the three tissues arises from a different subdivision of the mesoderm.

Skeletal muscle tissue arises from somatic mesoderm (parietal leaflet), cardiac muscle tissue arises from splanchnopleuric mesoderm (visceral leaflet), smooth muscle arises from splanchnopleuric some parts of somatic mesoderm.

Skeletal Striated Muscle Tissue (Skeletal Muscle)

It receives its name due to the streaks seen under the light microscope, which are derived from Myofibrils and are the primary muscle part of the Skeletal Muscle system, responsible for locomotion and limb movement. They are fabrics of voluntary control.

Muscle tissue cells have a very elongated cylindrical shape and bundles, reaching up to 40 cm in width and 10 to 100 µm in diameter in a single pile; they are multinucleated and contain, inside, numerous myofibrils, which are muscle fibers arranged in small longitudinal cylinders.

The nuclei of the cells are arranged on the periphery, and although in the microscopic view, some may appear to be in the middle of the cell this is nothing more than a cut artifact, where a sarcolemma was cut that was arranged differently on the lamina. The large presence of mitochondria is due to the fact that this tissue needs a lot of energy to perform its contractile activities.

There is also an organelle that deserves special attention, which is the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which stores and regulates the flow of Ca²; this organelle is actually an extension of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum that forms cisternae surrounding the myofibrils.

Connective Tissue Wrap

Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a sheath of dense connective tissue, which forms the structure known as the endomysium. In the basal lamina of the endomysium there are small, unnucleated, fibrocyte-like cells known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are source cells for new muscle fibers in case of muscle damage.

The endomysium are grouped in sets delimited by connective tissue, this group is called the perimysium and this group also contains vessels, nerves, collagen and fibroblasts. The set of perimysium forms the muscle itself, which is surrounded by another layer of connective tissue, which we call epimysium.

The function of the connective tissue that surrounds the muscle fibers is: to unite the common muscle fibers of a specific type of muscle, differentiating it from another muscle in the region, allowing the force of contraction.
A single beam can act on every muscle, supporting the muscle fibers because it is in the connective tissue that an extensive network of blood capillaries, nerves and lymphatic vessels is immersed and this helps in the gradual transition of some muscles to tendon.

Organization of Muscle Fibers

The myofibrils of muscle fibers can be seen under an optical microscope, however, their details can only be seen at the level of electron microscopy.

Myofibrils are composed of Bands (I, A and H) and lines (Z), the region between two Z lines is called Sarcomere. The I band is lighter because it is formed by thin filaments (Actin, Troponin and Tropomyosin), the A band is darker because it is formed by thick filaments (Myosin) and the H band is intermediate because it is formed by thin and thick filaments.

Muscle Tissue Types

Myofibrils are composed of four types of proteins: myosin, Actin, troponin and Tropomyosin. These four proteins are arranged in two filaments: the thin (Actin, troponin and Tropomyosin) and the thick (Myosin).

In the thin filament we have Actin, which is a long structure (5nm), formed by two filaments, twisted in the shape of a helix, of actin polymers (F or fibrous Actin). Actin polymers are made up of around 200 small actin monomers (G or globular Actin).

Tropomyosin is a long, thin protein, made up of two polypeptide chains that wind onto F-actin filaments. Troponin is a complex divided into three parts (TnT, TnC and TnI), each with a specific function. The TnT portion binds to Tropomyosin, the TnC portion binds to Ca² F ions and the Tnl portion enables the interaction between F actin and myosin to trigger muscle contraction.

In the thick filament, it receives this name because the myosin molecule is very thick (10 nm in diameter by 1.5 µm in length) and with a molecular mass equivalent to 500 kDa. Myosin is divided into two filaments, the heavy filament (Meromyosin heavy) produces globular regions that interact with myosin, in this segment there is a site where the energy molecule ATP is broken down into ADP by the ATPase enzyme; and the light filament (Light Meromyosin), consisting of two chains of fibers twisted into a helix. These segments were defined because they appear after being cleaved by the trypsin enzyme.


Skeletal muscle is highly vascularized by motor (efferent) nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which originate from the spinal cord. Each nerve fiber can innervate from one to more than 150 muscle fibers, a process known as endplate.

Motor nerves reach the perimysium where they branch into portions devoid of myelin sheath. These small branches enter the surface of the muscle fiber at a structure called the myoneural junction or motor plate.

When the impulse from the motor nerve arrives at the myoneural junction, the presynaptic vesicles are stimulated to release acetylcholine (Ach) at the myoneural junction. Ach binds to postsynaptic receptors in the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber, making it more permeable to Na, which depolarizes the cell. Depolarization propagates not only through the fiber membrane, but also inside it, thanks to the invaginations that the sarcolemma makes in the cells, transverse or T tubules, reaching deep regions and making intimate interactions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the so-called triads. Thus, the sarcolemma, which is depolarizing, manages to penetrate and take the depolarization to the interior of the fibers.

In the myoneural cleft and basement membrane there is an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase that hydrolyzes excess Ach from the cleft and removes those Ach that have bound to sarcolemma receptors, this prevents the sarcolemma from being depolarized for a long period of time.

Muscle Tissue Function

The intensity of muscle contraction is not dependent on which nerve sends its impulse, as the nerve always sends the same impulse to the muscle, regardless of whether it generates a strong or weak muscle contraction. The muscle fiber also does not have the ability to contract with greater or lesser intensity, because the intensity of its contraction is always the same. What really modulates the force of muscle contraction is the amount of muscle fibers that are stimulated, so the total contraction of the muscle will be less if fewer fibers are stimulated to contract or greater if more fibers are stimulated to contract.

In addition to the efferent fibers, the muscle also has afferent, that is, sensory, nerve activity. Amid the muscle fibers there are modified muscle fibers called intrafusal fibers, these modified fibers contain receptors (proprioceptors) that capture information from muscle fibers and pass on to sensory nerve fibers that transmit the spinal cord. The main function of the efferent fibers is to control body posture and coordinate muscles whose contraction is opposed.

What are the Functions of Muscular Tissues?

During muscle fiber rest, the energy molecule ATP binds to ATPase, present in the heavy portion of myosin (Head). However, myosin ATPase cannot break ATP (Dephosphorylate) by itself, requiring Actin to serve as an enzymatic cofactor for myosin ATPase.

When the motor nerve fiber releases Ach into the myoneural cleft, it causes a process of membrane depolarization that extends into the muscle fiber thanks to the T tubules and this potential reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum due to the presence of the triads. The sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane is stimulated to depolarize and this opens Ca2 channels, passively releasing the ion into the sarcoplasm.

The free Ca² in the sarcoplasm binds to the TnC portion of Troponin, which pushes the tropomyosin filament into the thin filament (Actin plus Troponin plus Tropomyosin), by doing this Actin is exposed and interacts with the myosin filament, Myosin- ATP. Now that Actin is interacting with myosin, the myosin ATPase enzyme already has its co-factor to break the molecule down.

The ATPase enzyme breaks down the energy molecule of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) into ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) plus Pi (Inorganic Phosphate). This breakdown, called dephosphorylation, releases a large amount of energy that was stored in the ATP molecule.

The high energy that the ATP molecule generates when dephosphorylating causes the myosin head to deform and as the actin filament is interacting with the myosin head, this actin filament is pushed which causes the Actin to slide over the myosin.

When the actin filament slides over the myosin, it decreases the size of the muscle fiber and increases its thickness, causing the fiber to contract.

When displacing Actin, the myosin head detaches from the actin filament and returns to its original shape, however, new actin-myosin ligaments are made when the actin filament slides over the myosin filament in such a way that with each contraction the ligaments that generated that contraction are undone and new ligaments with other myosin heads are made to guarantee the next contraction and so susceptibly.

When the cell finishes its depolarization, Ca² returns to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in an active way, which interrupts the contractile activity due to the fact that the TnC portion of Troponin no longer has Ca² to provoke its characteristic reaction that leads to muscle fiber contraction. This cycle of contraction and relaxation is known as excitation-contraction coupling.

Types of Fiber

Skeletal muscle tissue has two types of fibers: Red Fibers (Type I), White Fibers (Type II). The difference between the three is in the amount of myoglobin they have. Myoglobin is a hemoprotein, which can store oxygen, being very necessary in muscles that have high activity requiring high oxygen consumption. Myoglobin, when bound to oxygen, has a dark red color, which gives the characteristic color of most muscles.

Red Fibers or Type I, are rich in myoglobin in their sarcoplasm, this guarantees them a slow, oxidative contraction and continues using glucose and fatty acids as a source of energy and performing. They are smaller fibers with numerous mitochondria, which guarantees a good aerobic energy performance.

The White Fibers of Type II are low in myoglobin, tense their color more light red, this guarantees a fast, oxidative and discontinuous contraction. Due to the small number of myoglobin, little oxygen is stored and this gas is thrown directly into the mitochondria. Type II fibers are divided into two subclasses: IIa, which are fast and resistant to fatigue and IIb, which are fast but accumulate lactic acid very quickly which causes fatigue and muscle soreness. Some authors consider that IIb muscle fibers are a third type of fiber, called mixed or intermediate fiber.

Muscles may have a preference for the type of fibers with some muscles composed more of white fibers and others more of red fibers depending on the function and energy requirement.

Cardiac Striated Muscle Tissue (Cardiac Muscle)

The heart is a predominantly muscular organ as it is the contractile activity of the heart muscle that gives the heart its function as the body’s blood pump. Cardiac muscle fibers are similar to skeletal muscle fibers, however, some particularities of cardiac muscle make it a muscle tissue of its own.

Cardiac muscle has striations, similar to skeletal muscle, but not as well highlighted as in skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle is involuntary, being controlled by the parasympathetic and sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system. Shorter (90 µm and length) and branched, in such a way that one fiber makes projections to the others and the fibers can project longitudinally, transversely and obliquely in the same lamina.

The core of cardiac muscle fibers is at the center of the fiber and, unlike skeletal muscle fibers which are multinucleated, these fibers usually have only one or two nuclei.

Cardiac muscle fibers also have a much greater amount of mitochondria in their cytoplasm than do skeletal muscle fibers.

The sarcoplasmic reticulum is connected with the tubules of the transverse cisternae (T tubules) in a less intense way than in the skeletal muscle fibers in such a way that in addition to the triads there is the presence of dyads.

A peculiar feature of cardiac muscle fibers is the marked presence of lipofuscin, a golden brown pigment made up of phospholipids and proteins located close to the cell nucleus. Lipofuscin is usually present in cells that do not multiply and have a long life, such as cardiac muscle fibers.

Cardiac myocytes do not have the ability to regenerate, if there is any damage to cardiac muscle tissue, fibroblasts will proliferate in the injured space and fill it with collagen fibers, forming a kind of scar.

Interleaved Disks

The intercalated or intercalated discs is a very characteristic structure of cardiac muscle fibers. Under the light microscope, it appears as strongly stained transverse lines that appear at irregular intervals along the edges.

The great opacity of intercalated discs is due to the presence of junctional complexes (adhesion zonules, gap junctions and desmosomes) between cardiac muscle fibers. The adhesion zonules, unlike the epithelium, are irregularly arranged. Desmosomes act both in the adhesion zonule and in the regions where there are gap junctions and their importance is to prevent cardiac cells from becoming disarranged during contractile activity. Gap-like gap junctions are essential for the proper contractile functioning of the heart because it is through these gap junctions that ions pass that cause one cell to excite the other in such a way that the action potential generated in only one point in the heart (Brand Cells) -step), can propagate to all heart cells, as in a syncytial form.

Secretory Function

Cardiac muscle fibers, mainly the cells of the left atrium, synthesize an atrial peptide called: Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) that are stored in the form of granules and released into the blood, acting as an important hormone regulating plasma volume.

PNA increases the secretion of Na by the renal tubules, which causes water to also be secreted following the osmotic gradient, which reduces the plasma volume of the blood, which controls blood volume and blood pressure.

Other Cardiac Structures

Some muscular structures of the heart were modified and formed cells with specific functions to the heart.

Pacemaker cells are an example of modified muscle cells and their function is to generate, by themselves, an action potential that is conducted throughout the heart by contracting muscle fibers.

Another modified muscle cells present in the heart are the Purkinje fibers which are specialized to conduct the action potential generated in the atria to the ventricles.


Smooth muscle cells, upon receiving neurotransmitters from the autonomic nervous system, allow the entry of Ca² from the caveolae into the sarcoplasm. In the sarcoplasm, Ca² binds to calmodulin, forming the calmodulin-Ca² complex. phosphorylation of myosin II molecules. When myosin II molecules are phosphorylated, they stretch on the actin filament. Under the action of the myosin II ATPase enzyme, ATP is broken down and releases energy to move the myosin head over Actin and slide, a process similar to the contraction of skeletal muscle.

Like actin myofilaments, myosin II are linked to a network of structures called dense bodies, which are round, amorphous regions scattered throughout the cytoplasm of the muscle cell. When one cell contracts, the others are also stimulated to contract as they are pulled by these dense bodies. How to tighten the end of a shoelace and the entire shoelace twitches. During contraction, the cell nucleus passively deforms, taking on a rough, curled or helical appearance.

Hormones that can act on smooth muscle can have an effect on the sarcoplasmic concentration of cyclic AMP that leads to the activation of the kinase enzyme independent of the entry of Ca² into the cell. Hormones can increase or decrease the sarcoplasmic concentration of cyclic AMP, consequently leading to an increase or decrease in contraction.